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IoL 2, Nn. 

NEW SERIES 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE 

WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGICAL, SOCIETY 

MILWAUKEE 



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periodical 



447769 APR 3 



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Vol. 2 3laarg 1923 

NEW SERIES 



WAUKESHA COUNTY 

NORTHERN TOWNSHIPS 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE 

WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

MILWAUKEE 



(KUisconsm 

ifltltuatiUrr, 



Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities. 



OFFICERS 

PRESIDENT 
Lee R. Whitney 

VICE-PRESIDENTS 

Dr. E. J. W. Notz Robert P. Ferry Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand 

Dr. Samuel A. Barrett George A. West Aden T. Newman 

Dr. F. C. Rogers 

DIRECTORS 

William H. Vogel Harry E. Cole A. P. Kannenberg 

Arthur Gerth Alanson Skinner Mrs. H. E. Koerner 

Mrs. H. A. Main Paul Joers J. P. Schumacher 

TREASURER 

Charles G. Schoewe 

SECRETARY 

Charles Edward Brown 



COMMITTEES 

STATE SURVEY H. E. Cole, Dr. A. Gerend, Geo. R. Fox, Dr. W. G. 
McLachlan, Rev. F. S. Dayton, and Executive Board. 

MOUND PRESERVATION Dr. F. C. Rogers^ Prof. A. S. Flint, Dr. 
John J. D. Mack, Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, W. D. James, W. C. Eng- 
lish, Louise P. Kellogg, Mrs. Angie K. Main, Dr. M. E. Diemer, 
C. T. Olen, O. W. Malmgren, Mrs. F. R. Melcher, Rudolph Kuehne, 
W. A. Adams, R. S. Van Handel, and Vetal Winn. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. George L. Collie, Frank G. Logan, Mrs. 
Bessie E. Koerner, E. P. Hamilton, Mrs. H. A. Olson, Dr. Orin 
Thompson, Huron H. Smith, C. J. Koehn, Geo. Wright, D. A. 
Whelan and R. M. Dessereau. 

MEMBERSHIP Dr. H. L. Tilsner, William Haertel, G. R. Zlllisch, 
Rev. M. Staehling, Dr. W. H. Brown, Arthur Gerth, Dr. A. F. Heis- 
ing, A. E. Kritsch, P. J. Zuegge, Rev. Christ. Hjermstadt, Mrs. 
Ellen Butterfield, Rev. J. H. McManus, E. J. Gerritts and A. P. 
Cloos. 

JUNIOR BRANCH F. C. Paatsch, Rud. Boettger and Paul Joers. 

MAN MOUND PARK W. W. Gilman, Miss Emma Richmond and Prof. 
L. B. Wolfenson. 

AZTALAN MOUND PARK R. P. Ferry, C. E. Brown, Dr. S. A. Barrett, 
Mrs. H. A. Main, David Atwood and Dr. John J. D. Mack. 

PUBLICITY A. O. Barton, Ethel T. Rockwell, Mary E. Stewart and 
R. K. Coe. 



SESSIONS 

These are held in the Lecture Room in the Library-Museum Build- 
ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 



MEMBERSHIP FEES 
Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $.50 Institutional Members, $1.50 



All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison. 
Wisconsin. 



CONTENTS 



Vol. 2, No. 1, New Series 
ARTICLES 

Page 
Waukesha County, Northern Townships 7 

Archeological Meetings and Publications 60 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Facing Page 
Potawatomi Indians 

Map of Waukesha County 14 

Plate 

1. Dedication of Turtle Effigy, Silver Lake 34 

2. "Sawbuck" Mound, Summit Township 42 

3. School Section Group, Pewaukee Township 54 

Figure Page 
I 1 . Bear Effigy, Summit Township 37 

2. Regula Mounds, Summit Township 39 

3. Mink Effigy, Regula Group 40 

4. "The Swan," Summit Township 43 




Potawatom i 1 11 did UN 



Wi0rnttatu Arrliroluqial 

Published Quarterly by the "Wisconsin Archeologlcal Society 

VoL 2 MADISON, WIS., January, 1923 No. 1 

New Series 



WAUKESHA COUNTY 

NORTHERN TOWNSHIPS 
Charles E. Brown 

Waukesha county is located in the southeastern part of Wis- 
consin. It is bordered on the east by Milwaukee county, which 
separates it from the shore of Lake Michigan. South of it are 
Racine, Kenosha and Walworth counties, between it and the 
northern boundary of Illinois ; to the west of it is Jefferson county, 
and north of it the counties of Dodge and Washington. 

A recent description of the topography of this beautiful county 
describes it as "composed of prairies, oak openings, small marshes, 
almost innumerable lakes and small hills. The openings and 
prairies are rich, productive and valuable lands. The natural re- 
sources of the county are .... as varied as they are extensive, 
while its natural beauties would seem to be unsurpassed."* It is 
for its beautiful lakes that this attractive county is chiefly re- 
nowned. Most of these are located in its northwestern part. Here, 
in the townships of Oconomowoc, Merton, Summit and Delafield 
are located nine large and fifteen small lakes. The group of lakes 
about Oconomowoc "lies in a belt of terminal moraines and out- 
wash plains. The outwash plains contain many pots or kettles, 
formed by the melting of buried ice-blocks, and some of the lake 
basins are of the same origin."* Another group of lakes, Big and 
Little Muskego and Denoon, in the southeastern corner of the 
county, do not equal the foregoing in beauty of shoreline. Mus- 
kego lake is a broad, shallow body of water, surrounded by large 
swamps. Three other lakes, of medium size, are Howitt, Phan- 
tom and Eagle, located near the county line, in the southwestern 
corner. 



*West. Hist. Co., Hist. Waukesha Co., 312. 
'The Phys. Geog-. of Wis., 264. 



8 Wisconsin Archeologist 

The Pishtaka or Fox river, the principal stream in Waukesha 
county, flows from near its northeastern corner in a southwesterly 
direction, through the City of Waukesha and on toward Muk- 
wonago, east of which it makes a turn to the east and then another 
to the south, crossing the southern boundary of the county into 
Racine county. It has a dozen or more tributary streams. Pe- 
waukee lake is its chief reservoir. The Bark river flows from the 
northern boundary of the county in a southwesterly direction, 
through Nagawicka and the Nemahbin lakes, and leaves the coun- 
ty near the middle of its western boundary. The kettle moraine 
separates it from the Fox. The Oconomowoc, also entering the 
county at its northern boundary, flows in a southwesterly and 
then westerly direction through lakes North, Okauchee, Ocono- 
mowoc, Fowler and La Belle and crosses the western boundary, 
west of Oconomowoc. The Menomonee river flows in a south- 
easterly direction across the northeastern corner of the county. 
Scupernong creek, a tributary of the Bark river, in Eagle town- 
ship, flows south and then westward into the extensive marsh of 
the same name in Jefferson county. 

Lapham hill, formerly Government hill, about one and one-half 
miles south of Delafield, is the highest hill in the county. Its 
elevation is given as 669 feet. From its top a number of lakes 
can be seen. 

The springs of the City of Waukesha are widely known. Indian 
trails lead to them and they were appreciated by the aborigines. 
Some were regarded as sacred or healing springs. Numerous 
other fine springs existed, and still exist, in other parts of the 
county. 

A RCHEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 

Archeological researches in this county have extended over a 
long period of time. Dr. Increase A. Lapham's investigations in 
the county began as early as 1836, his place of residence being 
then in Milwaukee. They continued until the time of his death 
at his later home at Oconomowoc, in 1875. His work was con- 
fined largely to locating and mapping the Indian mound groups in 
the townships of Summit, Merton, Pewaukee, Vernon and Mus- 
kego. Most of these surveys were made in 1850, in preparation 
for his book, "The Antiquities of Wisconsin," which the Smith- 
sonian published in 1855. It contains descriptons of many of the 
mound groups whch he located, eight pages being devoted to 



Waukesha County Northern Townships 



these, and is illustrated with plates depicting them. A turtle 
effigy, which he found at Waukesha, in 1836, and of which he 
published a description in the Milwaukee Advertiser of that date 
has the distinction of being the first Wisconsin animal-shaped 
mound to be recognized and written about by an archeological in- 
vestigator. He soon afterwards found other effigy mounds while 
laying out streets in Milwaukee. Investigators of Wisconsin's 
archeological history owe a great debt to Lapham whose patient 
work has preserved the only record of some great Waukesha 
county mound systems which have long since wholly or partially 
disappeared beneath the destructive plow and through other 
agencies. Rev. Stephen D. Peet, almost as interested an investi- 
gator as Lapham, in the eighties visited some of the mound groups 
which his predecessor had described at Waukesha, Big Bend and 
Pewaukee. He printed brief descriptions of these in The American 
Antiquarian and in his book, "Prehistoric America" (v. 2), re- 
producing some of Lapham's plates. 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society began its investigations 
in the county in October, 1901. As this organization has N also 
been conducting similar investigations in many other Wisconsin 
counties, these have continued to date as opportunities for field 
work in this county offered. Among those assisting the Society at 
different times in the county have been the Messrs. Holland L. 
Porter, Mukwonago ; O. L. Hollister, L. R. Whitney, George A. 
West, W. H. Ellsworth, Dr. Charles D. Stanhope, C. W. Lamb, 
Howland Russell, J. M. W. Pratt, Milwaukee; I. N. Stewart, Ap- 
pleton; S. G. Haskins and Prof. A. R. Clifton, Pewaukee; Dr. F. 
C. Rogers, Oconomowoc, and A. V. Drown, Summit. In the 
course of years a large amount of valuable data has thus been 
assembled, which, although much remains still to be done in Wau- 
kesha county, the Society believes should now be made available 
to the public. 

Some of this information has been previously printed by the 
Society. In 1902, Mr. Porter published in The Wisconsin Arche- 
ologist a description of the mounds and sites in the Mud Lake 
region, near Mukwonago, and in 1909, Mr. Haskins published a 
description of the Indian remains in his home township of Pe- 
waukee. 

The present report is to appear in two parts, the first devoted 
to a description of the Indian remains in the eight northern and 



10 Wisconsin Archeologist 

the second of those in the eight southern townships in Waukesha 
county. 

PRESERVATION OF INDIAN MONUMENTS 

In Waukesha county the work of permanently preserving ex- 
amples of the earthen monuments of its early aboriginal in- 
habitants has not kept pace with archeological investigation or 
the spread of education among its inhabitants. While the preser- 
vation of some mounds was almost hopeless because of their lo- 
cation, others appear to have been needlessly destroyed. Wau- 
kesha especially has in past years lost golden opportunities for pre- 
serving to the public some notable monuments which the public 
and visitors to the city would now greatly appreciate. The reason 
why others have not been preserved is because of the remoteness 
of their locations from cities and villages. 

Yet at Waukesha the conservation of Indian earthworks was 
begun at an early date. In 1850 Dr. Lapham found a group of 
twelve effigy, linear and conical mounds preserved on and about 
the property of Carroll college. About three of these remain 
today, the others having been lost in disposing of some of the 
ground and others in the erection of a college building and in other 
ways. Three conical burial mounds in Cutler Park were pre- 
served in 1902 by the acquirement of this property by the city. 
Mr. Rolland L. Porter, a member of the Society, was one of those 
who labored to bring this about. At Silver Lake the preservation 
of a large and fine turtle effigy was accomplished in 1921 through 
the acquirement of the property by the Milwaukee County Boy 
Scouts. At the request of the state society Mr. Frederick Pabst 
is preserving a small number of fine effigy mounds located on 
his stock farm near Summit Corners, south of Oconomowoc. 
Several other residents of the county are also protecting such 
remains located on their lands. 

INDIAN INHABITANTS 

The region in southern Wisconsin of which Waukesha county 
forms a part was originally included in the ancient domain of 
the Winnebago, a Siouan tribe prominent in state history. Of 
this fine region of lakes, hills and prairies they had been com- 
pletely dispossessed by the Potawatomi, possibly with the assistance 



Waukcsha County Northern Townships 11 

of other Algonkian tribes of Wisconsin and Illinois long before 
the state was cede'd by the British to the Americans. 

The Potawatomi, having in the course of nearly two hundred 
years gradually spread southward along the Lake Michigan shore- 
line from their early villages on the Green Bay peninsula, soon 
established camps and villages in Waukesha, Washington and 
other interior counties. We are informed that they had so com- 
pletely possessed themselves of Waukesha county that after 1820 
only a few straggling Menomini and Winnebago continued to fish 
and hunt within its limits, eastern bands of the latter tribe having 
then largely withdrawn to the waters of the Rock river and the 
region west of them. 

When the first white settlers came to Waukesha county, in 1835 
and 1836, there were many small camps and a few large Pota- 
watomi villages on the banks of its streams and lakes. The prin- 
cipal villages were at Waukesha and Pewaukee, near the cen- 
ter of the county; at Mukwonago, at its southern boundary line, 
and at Muskego lake, in its southeastern corner. 

In the year 1837, Ebenezer Childs found the Potawatomi vil- 
lage at Waukesha on the Fox river to be capable of furnishing 
the large number of 400 warriors. This would indicate that this 
village must have contained over 1,000 inhabitants. Several hun- 
dred Indians were in the village or camps at the eastern end of 
Pewaukee lake at this time. At this time the Winnebago had 
been endeavoring to persuade these Indians to join them in taking 
the warpath against the white settlers then in the state and the 
latter were restless and not in the best of moods. In 1837, Almon 
Welch coming over the Indian trails from Oak creek, in Mil- 
waukee county, to Muskego lake, found at that place a village 
of 300 Potawatomi. The village at Mukwonago also contained 
at times from 300 to 500 Indians. 

Jacques Vieau, the Milwaukee fur trader, visited large Pota- 
watomi villages at the present locations of Mukwonago and Wau- 
kesha in 1804-05, in the interests of his business. 

About the year 1827, Andrew J. Vieau, acting as agent for his 
father Jacques, established a trading post at the Waukesha Pota- 
watomi village. He remained for about two years, visiting during 
this period other villages and camps of that tribe in the county. 
He furnished the Indians with ammunition, calico, beads and to- 
bacco. In 1837 he sold his business to Solomon Juneau, the Mil- 
waukee trader. Other traders also sent agents from as far away 



12 Wisconsin Archeologist 

as Green Bay and Prairie du Chien, among the Indians for their 
peltries. The testimony of all of the early settlers of Waukesha 
county is to the effect that the Potawatomi were very peaceable 
Indians. 

Everywhere throughout the county fish and game were abun- 
dant. Wild rice grew in some of the streams and lakes, and nuts 
and berries could be gathered in quantity. Materials for the mak- 
ing of stone implements were at hand. Its natural resources con- 
tinued to attract the Indian to Waukesha county for thirty years 
after its cession to the government (1833) and settlement by the 
whites. 

The Potawatomi Indians of Waukesha county are thus de- 
scribed : "None of these Indians were permanently located. Dur- 
ing the season of corn-planting, their women and children occu- 
pied the higher lands among the lakes and rivers throughout the 
country, and pursued their primitive methods of agriculture, while 
the adult males spent the time in hunting, fishing and lounging 
about the camp." The framework of their habitations was made 
of poles, and this was converted into a hut by means of a cover- 
ing of skins or strips of bark. The village at Waukesha was per- 
manent until 1837, except during the winters, when its inhabitants 
moved southward. Of the Pewaukee village or camps there is 
little recorded information. 

These Indians buried their dead in shallow graves, the body 
being frequently first wrapped in a blanket. Various articles 
belonging to the deceased were placed in the grave, which was 
covered with stones or brush. Burials were also made, it is stated, 
directly on the ground, or in trees.* 

An Indian burial ground was located on the site of the Park 
hotel at Waukesha, several about the Oconomowoc lakes, and 
one at Pewaukee, according to the History of Waukesha County. 
The graves were sometimes covered with logs and stones, some- 
times with "shakes" stuck up crosswise. Bodies were sometimes 
fastened upright to trees, guarded for a number of days against 
wild animals and then left to decay. 

In the summer months the Waukesha county Indians wore only 
breech cloths and moccasins. In the winter they added to this 
costume government blankets and skin or cloth leggings. Some 
wore strings of glass or porcelain beads. The women wore cloth 
dresses, leggings and blankets. Both men and women wore their 
hair long. The children wore no clothes in the summer. 

*See Waukesha County histories. 



Waukesha County Northern Tozvnships 13 

Elsewhere in this report additional information concerning the 
Indians of Waukesha county is recorded. A chapter on the im- 
plements and ornaments of the early Indian inhabitants of the 
county will appear in Part II of this report. 

TRAILS 

In Waukesha county many, if not most of the angling roads, 
follow old Indian trails. The courses of these trails are obtained 
from the maps of the government surveyors, made in 1835 and 
1836, and from the printed narratives of, and from interviews 
with early settlers of the county. 

^Milwaukee-Western Wisconsin Trail. This trail from the 
Potawatomie Indian villages at Milwaukee entered Waukesha 
county through Section 25 of Brookfield township, a short dis- 
tance south of Elm Grove, and ran westward through Sections 
26, 27, 28 and 29, following the line of the present Elm Grove 
to Blodgett road. In Section 29 it crossed a tributary of the Fox 
river. Just east of this crossing it divided, the southern trail 
running in a southwest direction through the northwest corner 
of Section 32 and the N^2 of Section 31 to the Pewaukee town- 
ship line, then in a southeasterly direction to Prairie Village, the 
Potawatomie village at Waukesha. The northern trail ran west 
through Blodgett and to the west line of Section 25 of Pewaukee 
township. Here it crossed the Fox river just south of where 
Pewaukee creek, the outlet of Pewaukee lake, unites with it. It 
ran through the Nj^ of Section 26 and crossed Pewaukee creek 
in the SW^4 of Section 23. From here its course was northward 
through the east halves of Sections 22 and 15. From the NE% 
of 15 a branch ran north through the W*/2 of Section 10 to its 
northwest corner. The main trail continued northwest to present 
Pewaukee village and from here followed the general line of the 
highway north of Pewaukee lake to Hartland and westward pass- 
ing between Pine and Nagawicka lakes, Okauchee and Oconomo- 
woc lakes and through Oconomowoc to the Waukesha- Jefferson 
county line. West of Pewaukee the plats of the government sur- 
veyors do not give the location of this important early trail. 

Milwaukee-Waukesha Trail. This trail from Milwaukee to 
Waukesha passed across the northern part of New Berlin town- 
ship to Section 12 of Waukesha township. It ran in a curving 



14 Wisconsin Archeologist 



line across Sections 12, 11, 10 and 9 westward to the Fox river 
in the present southern part of Waukesha. 

Waukesha-Mukwonago Trail. From Waukesha a trail fol- 
lowed the east bank of the Fox river, crossing to the western bank 
in the SW>4 of Section 9. From this point it ran in a southwest- 
erly direction across Sections 17, 20, 19 and 30 of Waukesha town- 
ship and into Genesee township, which it entered in the NE% of 
Section 25. It continued in a "southwesterly direction through 
Saylesville and on to the SW>4 of Section 35. Here it turned 
southward running through the west halves of Sections 2, 11, 14 
and 23 of Mukwonago township and to the large Potawatomie 
village at this place. From this village it continued southward to 
Big Foot's Potawatomi village at Lake Geneva, and from here 
southward to Illinois. 

Waukesha-Muskego-Milwaukee Trail. From the Potawatomi 
village at the at the head of Muskego lake, in the southeastern 
corner of Waukesha county, a well-worn trail ran in a north- 
westerly direction to the north end of Little Muskego lake, through 
Sections 10, 3 and 4 of Muskego township. Here it crossed to 
the west side of Muskego creek and continued in a northerly and 
then northwesterly direction through New Berlin and Waukesha 
townships to Waukesha. From the north end of Muskego lake 
this trail ran in a northwesterly direction to Milwaukee. 

Muskego-Milwaukee Trail. A trail from Milwaukee to Mus- 
kego lake crossed into Waukesha township in the southeast corner 
of Section 1, Muskego township, ran through the northern part of 
Section 12, and in the NW% it forked, one branch running west- 
ward through Section 11 and the other south to the southwest 
corner of Section 12 and into 13, where it united with the Muskego 
east shore trail. 

Muskego Lake Trails. In this region there was a trail on 
both shores of the lake. That on the east shore ran northward 
through the eastern half of Section 25, in a northwest direction 
across Section 13 and across the northeast corner of Section 14 
at the head of the lake. From here its course was westward 
through the south half of Section 11. The west shore trail com- 
ing from Denoon lake in the southwest corner of the township, 
ran northeasterly across Section 29, across the northwest corner 
of Section 28, northerly through 21 and 16, where it crossed 
Muskego creek, and into Section 10, where it united with the east 
shore trail, both continuing on to Waukesha. 



Wankesha County Northern Townships 15 

Mukwonago-Big Bend Trail. A trail from Mukwonago ran 
east passing through parts of Sections 31, 32, 29, 28, 27, 26, 23 
and 24 of Vernon township to Big Bend on the Fox river. Here 
the trail turned north uniting in Section 13 with an east and west 
trail which passed through the southern parts of Sections 17, 16, 
15 and 14. From Section 13 the united trails ran in a general 
easterly direction to Muskego creek between the two Muskego 
lakes. From Section 17 the east and west trail ran west for a mile 
to Mud lake. 

Pine Lake-Waukesha Trail. This trail from the southern end 
of Pine lake ran southward to the east of present Nagawicka 
station on the C, M. & S. P. R. R., through the western part of 
Section 4 of Delafield township. It crossed the Bark river in the 
NW% f Section 9 and ran in a general southeasterly direction, 
east of Nagawicka lake, through Sections 9, 16 and 15, the latter 
point half a mile west of the western end of Pewaukee lake. From 
here it continued its southeast direction through Sections 22, 23 
and 25 to Section 30 of Pewaukee township. From here its course 
was again southeasterly through Sections 30, 29 and 33 to the 
Fox river at Waukesha. In the SW*4 of Section 23 of Delafield 
township, one mile south of Pewaukee lake, this trail forked, 
the northern branch running in a* general easterly direction through 
19, 20, 28 and 27, and then south through Sections 26 and 35 to 
the Fox river and Waukesha. A trail from Section 5, northwest 
of Pewaukee village (probably coming from Merton) and which 
pursued a southeasterly direction through Sections 9, 16, 21, 22 
and 27, west of Pewaukee creek, united with the foregoing trail in 
the west half of Section 26. From the southern end of Pine lake 
the Pine Lake trail ran northward to the Oconomowoc river, in 
Merton township and into Washington county. 

Lisbon-Pewaukee-Waukesha and Pewaukee-Brookfield Trails. 
Stanley G. Haskins describes and shows on a map accompanying 
his report on the aboriginal occupation of Pewaukee township a 
trail leading from Pewaukee in a southwesterly direction through 
Sections 11, 17 and 20 to near the west line of Section 29. Here on 
the T. Connor farm, where a portion of it still exists, it forked, one 
branch leading in a southeasterly direction across parts of Sections 
29, 32 and 33 to Waukesha and the other in a southwesterly di- 
rection across parts of Sections 30 and 31 "toward Mukwonago." 
A trail from the north from Lisbon township entered Pewaukee 



16 Wisconsin Archeologist 

township at the north line of Section 2 and ran south through the 
section to the north line of Section 11 passing a spring on the A. 
Evart farm. At the north line of this section, on the G. Hodgson 
farm, it passed a spring and then another at the base of a hill 
around which it wound. From Section 11 this trail ran in a 
southwesterly direction across parts of Sections 14 and 15 to the 
M. S. Hodgson place in Section 22. Here it crossed Pewaukee 
creek and continued in a southwesterly direction through Sections 
22 and 27 and then south through Section 33 to Waukesha* The 
Land Office map shows a trail running southward from the south- 
west corner of Section 2 through the western part of Section 
11 and eastern part of Section 15, across the northeast corner of 
Section 22. Then through the western part of Section 23, and 
crossing Pewaukee creek in its southwestern corner, into Section 
26, where it crossed the Fox just below where the creek adds its 
waters to this stream. Haskins also shows a trail leading south- 
east from the end of the lake at Pewaukee to the bank of Pewau- 
kee creek in Section 15. Here it crossed the creek and ran along 
its eastern bank in a southeasterly direction toward the point of 
its union with the Fox. He shows another trail leading west 
from the south shore of Pewaukee lake, in the NE^4 of Section 
17, across parts of Sections 16, 15, 14 and 13 and to the Fox river 
in Brookfield township.* 

Oconomowoc- Waukesha Trails. A trail ran between Lac La 
Belle and Fowler lake, forded the Oconomowoc river at the dam, 
then ran south of Oconomowoc lake and between the Nashotah 
lakes. From here it ran in a southeasterly direction to Delafield 
at the outlet of Nagawicka lake, where it crossed the Bark river. 
It followed the south shore of the latter lake and continued east- 
ward for about \y^ miles and united with the Pine lake trail in the 
eastern part of Section 22 of Delafield township. 

A map furnished by Miss Julia A. Lapham shows some of the 
trails of Summit township. One of these, from Delafield, passed 
between Upper and Lower Nashotah lakes and ran westward 
along the center line of Section 11, then diagonally through the 
NE*4 of Section 10, passing north of a pond formerly located 
there. From the northwest corner of this quarter section it ran 
north to the west end of Oconomowoc lake, then in, a general 
northwesterly direction through Oconomowoc. Another trail 
from the east (Delafield) passed between the Nemahbin lakes and 



*8 Wis. Archeo. 



Waukesha Comity Northern Townships 17 

ran west for about a mile. It followed a northwesterly direction 
across the old Regula, Schuyler and Brakefield farms to the north- 
east corner of Silver lake and then ran northward to Oconomowoc. 
A trail from the west and south (Genesee lakes) crossed or united 
with this path on the Pabst (Regula) farm. 

Pewaukee-Hartland Trail. From Section 8 in Pewaukee town- 
ship, on the northeast shore of Pewaukee lake, a trail ran west 
to Hartland, on the Bark river, in Merton township. 

Menomonee Falls-Fox River Trail. A trail from Menomonee 
Falls crossed the Menomonee river in the NW^4 of Section 11 
of Menomonee township, ran southward through Sections 10, 15, 
22 and 27. In the southwest corner of the last section it turned 
westward through the north half of Section 33. In its NWJ4 it 
forked, one branch running in a northwest direction and the 
other in a westerly direction, both to the Fox river. 

Other Trails. A trail ran across the northeastern part of 
Brookfield township in a northwesterly direction from the NE% 
of Section 13 to the NE% of Section 4. Another ran from the 
SE}4 of Section 4 in a general southwesterly direction to the 
Fox river, in the SEJ4 of Section 19. It passed through Brook- 
field. In Eagle township a trail ran in a northeast direction from 
the NW^4 of Section 7 across the SE% of Section 6 and into 
Section 5. This trail was a short distance east of Beaver Dam 
lake, in the northwest corner of the township. Another ran from 
the NW}4 to the SW}4 of Section 31. There was a cranberry 
marsh here in the southwest corner of this township. 

In Ottawa township a trail ran in a northwest direction from the 
NW}4 of Section 33 through Sections 28, 27, 22 and 23 and to 
the NEJ4 of Section 13. From this point it passed into Section 18 
of Genesee township and then ran in a northeast direction through 
Sections 8, 9 and 4 at Wales. From here it probably ran north- 
east to Delafield township, and across the southern sections of this 
and Pewaukee townships to the Indian village at Waukesha. 
The exact courses of some other trails have been lost. 
The "History of Waukesha County" mentions that "the Indian 
trails in some portions of the county had been worn very deep 
by long years of use. The one leading to what are now known as 
Bethesda and Mineral Rock Springs (at Waukesha) was 20 inches 
in depth, and some leading to Pewaukee, across the Prairie from 



18 Wisconsin Arc Jieolo gist 

the Fox river, about two feet below the surface when the first 
white settlers discovered them."* 

INDIAN PLACE NAMES 

The Indian place names in Waukesha county, given by the 
aborigines to the sites of their villages, the lakes and streams, and 
preserved by the white settlers, are of Algonkian, largely of 
Potawatomi origin. The several histories of the county and other 
publications give the significance of some of these. 

Waukesha Augustin Grignon states that this name, pro- 
nounced by the Chippewa, Waw goosh sha, means the 
little fox. 

Pewaukee Pee wau na\v kce. the flinty place. Grignon.* 

Verwyst gives the original of the name as ''nibiwaki," 

meaning swampy. It is also thought to be derived from 

pewaukeeneening or Pewaukeenee, meaning lake of shells. 

Muskego From m:i>hkig. swamp. Or from Musk ee guack, 

fishing place. 

Oconomowoc Original, Koo no mo wauk. name of a water- 
fall. 

Ashippun Fnnn ;i sepan, e>siban, racoon. 
Menomonee From mihnomin. rice. 
Nashota from nijode, twins. 
Nemahbin from namebin. sucker. 
Okauchee Probably from okidj. pipestem. 
Nagawicka Possibly from nagamowike, songstress. 
Mukwonago Original mequaniegoick, micwan, spoon or 

ladle, or from mukwa, bear, 'place of the bear.' 
It is greatly to be regretted that many other Indian names for 
Waukesha county lakes, streams, springs and sites were not pre- 
served. 

INDIAN REMAINS 

OCONOMOWOC TOWNSHIP 

Through the northern part of this township the Ashippun river 
flows entering near its northeastern corner. On the Jervis & 
Edgerton map of Wisconsin, 1846, it is named the Ashburn river. 



*p. 383. 

*3 Wis. Hist. Colls., 337. See West Hist. Co., Hist., Wauk. Co. and 
Memoirs of Wauk. Co. 



Waukesha County Northern Townships 19 

With this stream Ashippun lake, a narrow lake about one mile in 
length and one-fourth mile wide, is connected by a small stream. 
In the southwest corner of the township are the two beautiful 
Oconomowoc lakes, Lac La Belle and Fowler lake, the latter really 
only a small part of the former. The Oconomowoc river enters at 
the eastern end of Fowler lake and leaves La Belle on its southern 
side. About one mile southeast of Fowler lake and connected with 
it by the river is Oconomowoc lake, another large and beautiful 
body of water, whose shores are occupied by fine summer homes. 
All but a small part of the northeast shore of this lake lies in Sum- 
mit, the township adjoining Oconomowoc township on the south. 
Okauchee lake, also of large size, is located a short distance north- 
east of the latter lake with which the Oconomowoc connects it. 
A part of the eastern half of this lake is in Merton township. 
North of Okauchee lake and between it and Ashippun lake are a 
number of ponds, the several largest being from one-fourth to 
one-half mile in length. 

Lac La Belle is somewhat irregular in outline. On its north 
shore, near its eastern end, in a region formerly known as Buzzard 
point, three peninsulas project into its waters. Two small islands, 
Islandale and Beggs (Round) are in the lake south of these. The 
south and west shores of the lake have a gentle slope, on the north 
shore are some kames and two areas of low land. Two creeks 
enter the lake on this shore, one of these at Buzzard point. The 
length of this lake is about 2^4 miles and its greatest breadth 1^ 
miles. Its greatest depth is given as 20 feet. Okauchee lake has 
a very irregular outline with a number of bays and arms. A dam 
at the outlet has raised the water in this lake about 11 feet above 
its natural level. This has made important changes in its shore- 
lines. There are several small islands in Okauchee lake. The 
Oconomowoc enters the lake at its northeastern corner and leaves 
at an arm on its southwest side. No other streams flow into the 
lake. There are a number of fine springs at its northeast corner. 
Summer cottages are very numerous on its shores. Lapham's map 
of Wisconsin, 1848, names this lake, Kauchee lake. 

Ashippun Lake 

1. Ashippun Camp Sites. The Indians formerly camped in 
small numbers on the shore of this lake. In the cultivated lands 
along its shores some flint implements, stone axes and several cop- 



20 Wisconsin Archaeologist 

per implements have been found. Miss Julia A. Lapham, in 1899, 
reported the former presence of several mounds on its shores. 

On Farmer's map of Wisconsin, 1848, Ashippun lake is desig- 
nated as Ashko lake. 



Lac La Belle 

The south and east shores of this pretty lake of the Oconomowoc 
chain of lakes (La Belle, Fowler, Oconomowoc and Okauchee) is 
occupied by the city of Oconomowoc. 

2. Long View Site. The former summer resort properly of 
the late James H. Eckels, Long View, on the north shore of Lac 
La Belle, shows indications of having been an Indian village or 
camp site. On December 29, 1907, Mr. William Raynor reported 
to the writer that in 1903, while superintending the grading and 
landscape work on these grounds, he collected here a considerable 
number of Indian implements. Among these were 2 stone axes, 
a broken gorget (half), 13 flint blanks, 2 perforators, 9 leaf 
shaped points, 35 arrow points with long straight bases, 50 notched 
arrow points, 5 triangular arrow points, a notched and 9 barbed 
spear points, 1 1 knives, 6 broken points and a pottery object of 
unknown use. Fireplace stones and flint chips and fragments 
were scattered over the place. 

2. Beggs Island Mound. On this small island in Lac La Belle, 
also formerly known as Round and Rockwells island, and after- 
ward "Lindenmere" by its former owner, W. E. Kelley, there is 
a small circular earthwork, about 30 feet in diameter and \ l / 2 feet 
high at its middle. This has been thought by some persons to be 
an Indian mound. Mr. W. E. B. Shufeldt of Oconomowoc in- 
formed the writer in a letter dated August 6, 1911, that in 1887, 
his father, then the owner of the land, excavated this supposed 
mound in several places and finding in it "bricks that had been 
under posts or piers" concluded "that it was constructed for some 
purpose by white men, perhaps as recently as the late 40's." 

3. Dupees Point Camp Site. On this point, which separates La 
Belle from the smaller Fowler lake, east of it, and which is now 
occupied by a portion of the city of Oconomowoc, Indians are 
reported to have camped in the early days of settlement. 



Waukesha County Northern Townships 21 



4. Oconomowoc River Village Site. The Oconomowoc river 
drains Lac La Belle, flowing out of the lake on its southern side 
and through the western part of the city of Oconomowoc. Along 
both banks of this stream for a distance of a half mile south of 
the lake shore evidences of a former camp site are abundant. Dr. 
Frederick C. Rogers, who has explored this region, reports that 
flint chips and other rejectage of the Indian arrowmaker are 
scattered over thfe fields. Fireplace stones are also numerous. 
Numerous flint points, a cache of fifteen hammer stones, flint 
blanks, a few copper implements and an iron trade axe have been 
found here. On the O. L. Rosenkrans place on the west side of 
the river and south of the lake, Mr. George L. Boundey, a former 
member of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, collected pre- 
vious to 1914, flint points, fragments of pottery vessels, 30 hammer 
stones and other Indian implements. 

Fowler Lake 

5. Fowler Lake Mound. In the State Historical Museum at 
Madison are a collection of articles presented by Mr. George L. 
Boundey. These were obtained by Mr. Roy Ferry in the explora- 
tion of a mound containing a burial formerly located near Shel- 
clons bridge, near the La Belle cemetery, near where the Oconomo- 
woc river enters Fowler lake. These include 2 iron knife blades, 
a rasp file, 2 sheet copper ornaments (gorgets?), fragments of a 
copper kettle, pieces of sheet iron with numerous perforations 
(ornaments?), a fragmentary brass bracelet, a silver bracelet 
stamped "Montreal," and a small piece of rush matting. With 
the above were also found a bear claw, a quantity of "water 
melon" seeds, a small stone scraper, a copper axe, some glass trade 
beads on a copper wire, several flint points, and* pieces of mouldy 
buckskin. 

Okauchec Lake Region 

6. Brown Mound. A linear or embankment shaped mound was 
formerly located on the E. F. Brown farm in the southeast corner 
of the SE% of Section 22. Dr. Rogers, who investigated this 
record for the Wisconsin Archeological Society, states that it was 
over 100 feet in length and tapering in form. At its eastern or 
larger extremity it was probably 6 feet high. It was located about 
one-half mile south of the town hall, on Brown street. It has been 



22 Wisconsin Archcologist 

completely levelled by years of cultivation. This mound was 
originally reported to the Society by Mr. Milton Colby of Wesley, 
Iowa, in a letter written on September 9, 1903. He remembered 
it as a boy. 

7. Shaver Mound. A conical burial mound was formerly lo- 
cated on land owned by John Shaver, in the S*/> of the NW% of 
Section 23. Jt was 30 feet in diameter and 5 feet high. The south- 
ern half of this earthwork was destroyed in the construction ol 
the east and wc-4 road through this section and the remainder 
obliterated in cultivating the field in which it lay. There is no 
information concerning the disturbance of human bones or imple- 
ments during its destruction. This mound was located a short 
distance east of the town hall. North and east of it were several 
small ponds. 

8. Shaver I'orn Field. An Indian corn field was located in 
former years in the midst of a rather dense forest on the John 
Shaver farm, in the X\\ ',4 of the XF' 4 <>f Section 23. This cov- 
ered a circular area. Mr. Shaver, now deceased, remembered that 
the natives came each season to plant and cultivate the corn with 
their rude iron h<ves. All traces of this field were destroyed in 
the clearing and subsequent cultivation of this land. The presence 
of the corn hills and mounds and the finding of stone implements 
in this section indicate that the natives probably at one time had a 
cam]) site here. 

9. Krown Fnclosure. A circular enclosure was formerly located 
on land owned by C. 1>. Hrown in the XEJ4 of the SE^4 '>f " 
lion 23. It was near the western end of the small, irregularly 
shaped body of water known as Marx pond. Its circumference 
is said to have been about 800 feet and the width of the low 
earthen wall about 8 feet, in the year 1888. Doubtless thi> size is 
exaggerated. In 1908 only about 80 feet of the circular wall was 
visible. It was probably used by the natives as a council and 
dance ground. 

Dr. Rogers reported this and the preceding records to the Society 
on June 23, 1908. All are from a fourth to three-fourths of a 
mile north and northwest of Okauchee lake. 

10. Tweeden Shore Mound. On the west shore of Okauchee 
lake, in Fract. Section 25, a conical mound was found in the 
locality known as Tweedens shore. It was visited by Prof. Julius 



U\utkcsJia County Northern Townships 23 

Torney, Mr. \Y. C. Shier and the writer on October 20, 1907. The 
mound was 23 feet in diameter at its base and about 2 feet high. 
It had been used by campers as a location for a tent and its top 
had thus been somewhat flattened. It was situated in a grove of 
young trees at a distance of about 25 feet from the shore of a 
small, marshy bay and within 20 feet of the shore of a small pond 
lying west of it. A summer resort cottage (Braza) was within 
100 feet of this mound. On Nichols Point across the marsh from 
this place some Indian graves were reported to have been dis- 
turbed. Mr. E. Krause and Mr. Schier had previously done some 
digging there but without results. Some tree falls on this point 
have been mistaken for graves. 

11. Olwell Mounds. A group of three linear earthworks was 
formerly located on the Fred Born farm (Cedar Park) in the 
NWJ4 f Section 22. Here were several small ponds, one of 
which was drained by a creek which flowed southward into an- 
other creek which flowed into Lac La Belle. This information was 
furnished to the writer in 1907 by Mr. John Olwell, an old settler 
residing on the north shore of Okauchee lake. 

12. North Shore Camp. In the year 1845 and up to the year 
1876 the Potawatomi ( ?) Indians camped on the north shore of 
Okauchee lake in Sections 24 and 25 and elsewhere along this 
shore. Twenty-five or more of them were often present engaged 
in hunting and fishing and occupying wigwams covered with rush 
matting. The floors of these dwellings were covered with skins 
and a sheet metal kettle swung from a crotched stick over a small 
fire in the center. They had a f ew r ponies and dogs. This informa- 
tion was obtained from Mr. Olwell. 

The Indians also formerly camped on the shore of Railroad bay 
on the south shore of the lake, in Section 36. 

MERTON TOWNSHIP 

This township, once called Warren, adjoins Oconomowoc town- 
ship on the east. In it there are five large lakes, Okauchee (a 
part), Pine, Beaver, North and Keesus, all but the latter being 
situated in the southwestern corner. There are five small lakes 
between these. The Oconomowoc river, entering the township 
on its north line, flows southward into North lake and from the 
western shore of this lake southward into the northeast corner of 



24 Wisconsin Archcologist 

Okauchee. The Bark river flows southward through the south- 
eastern part of the township. Pine or Chenequa lake, as it was 
formerly also known, is 2% miles long and slightly over one mile 
wide at its widest part. Its water is "derived chiefly from springs 
and from seepage from Beaver lake" east of its northern part. 
It overflows into Xorth lake less than one-half mile to the north 
of it. Its shores rise from 26 to 33 feet above- the water. Beaver 
lake is also chiefly fed hy springs. It is slightly over one mile 
long and nearly one mile wide at its western end. Xorth lake is 
\ l /4 miles long and three-fourths of a mile wide- and Keesus meas- 
ures about \Y% miles aero-- its widest parts. ( )f these lakes Pine 
lake has long he-en especially appreciated by summer residents, 
having many tine homes on its shores. 

The surface of the township is broken, and the soil rich and 
deep. 

On Capt. T. J. Cram's map of Wisconsin Territory, 1839, Kee- 
MIS is called Mee-hel lake ; Xorth. IVckor lake and Pine and Beaver 
lakes. Gay lake. Farmer's map. 1S4S, names Pine (lay lake and 
Beaver Peekor lake. 

I'orcst, Moose mid North Lakes 

1. Forest Lake ^1 omuls and Site-. This is ( ,ne of the small 
and but little known lakes of Wanke-ha county. Its length is 
about one-half mile. About half of it lies in Delatield and the bal- 
ance in Merton township. Its southern end is one-eighth mile or 
less north of Xashota village. Its shape is nearly rectangular. The 
lands on its northern and southern shores are under cultivation. 
The lands on its western shore are high and steep, in places rising 
forty or more feet above the water, and are covered with a line 
grove of oak trees. A short distance in the rear of the lake bank 
the land is rough, consisting of ridges with hollows between them 
and is also clothed with forest trees. The eastern shore is also 
elevated with here and there clumps and scattered oaks with a few 
young cedars among them. At the southeast side of the lake there 
is a fringe of tall willow trees at the water's edge. The land 
immediately in the rear of the lake bank is under cultivation. 
Sixty years ago the Potawatomi still camped in small numbers on 
both the south and west shores of Forest lake. On the cultivated 
lands of the N. C. Hanson farm, on the south shore of the lake, 
evidences of an early camp site are indicated in the finding there 



Wankesha County Northern Townships 25 

in recent years of a considerable number of flint arrow and spear 
points, and of a few perforators, scrapers and knives, also of 
several celts and grooved stone axes. Flint chips and fragments 
occur in a number of places in these fields. The site is to all ap- 
pearances a shallow one indicating no long continued occupation. 
On the adjoining A. A. Zastrow farm an oval and a crcular ham- 
mer stone and some flint chips of a white color were found when 
this locality was examined on June 21, 1922. These lands are 
quite stony. Mr. Zastrow has collected a few flint points here. 

A single conical mound was formerly located near the former 
Forest Park spring on the Hanson farm. The ruins of this cob- 
blestone-walled spring can still be seen in the field. This mound 
was levelled several years ago by the owner with a plow and 
scraper. Its former location is plainly marked by the standing 
grain which grows higher here than elsewhere in the field. Its 
basal diameter was about 20 and its height about 5 feet. It was 
constructed entirely of black surface soil and no indication of a 
burial was found during its demolition. The location of this 
mound was about 450 feet north of State Highway No. 19, and 
about 600 feet southeast of the lake shore (NE^ Sec. 6, Delafield 
Tp.). At the northern end of the lake there is a partly wrecked 
conical mound. It was near the center of the SE^4 of Section 31. 
It appears to have been originally about 21 feet in diameter and 
2^/2 feet high. A large circular pit has been dug into one edge of 
this earthwork which is situated at the base of a grassy slope at a 
distance of about 50 feet from the water. On the cultivated lands 
above some flint workshop sites were formerly indicated and a 
few flint points have been collected. This end of the lake is 
marshy with areas of cattail and white pond lilies. 

2. Garvin Lake Site. This charming, rat-her secluded lakelet 
is only about half a mile in length and is separated from the west 
shore of Okauchee lake by a very narrow strip of land. Its shore 
line at most places is high and wooded with only a field or two 
under cultivation on its eastern and southern shores with a back- 
ground of upland forest. At its southern extremity there is a 
marshy area of blue flag, water lilies and sedges. On a grassy 
hillock elevated about fifteen feet above the water at this end of 
the lakelet there is a series of wild rice threshing pits. Sixteen 
of these are grouped within a few feet of each other and are from 
2 l / 2 to 3 feet in diameter and from 3 to 12 feet apart and now 



26 n'isconsin Archeologist 

filled with black forest soil. Excavation of several shows their 
depth to have been from \]/ 2 to 2 feet. The Potawatomi are 
reported to have formerly camped near here and on the near 
Okauchee shore. On the west side of the lakelet, in a cultivated 
field a few traces of a former camp site occur and a few flint points 
have been found. Garvin lake is about three- fourths of a mile 
northwest of the north end of Forest lake. 

3. Okauchee Camp Site. Indications of a former native camp 
site are found on the west side of the Oconomowoc river at the 
point where it flows into Okauchee lake. Some flint and pecked 
stone implements have been collected here-. The river is narrow, 
a mere creek, at this place. 

4. Stone Bank Camp Site. The Potawatomi formerly camped 
on the Miles and adjoining farms at the base of a wooded ridge 
on the west side of the Oconomowoc river, at Stone Bank, a 
short distance north of Moose- lake ( SK*4 Sec. 18). 

Mr. Charles (i. Sclmrwc- located a camp site a short distance 
northeast of this place on the north bank of the river and on the 
east side of the north and south road. Here besides the usual 
indications, a barbed and triangular points and a flint perforator 
were found in Scpti-mbiT. 1 ( ^22 (S\V^ Sec. 17). 

No sites have as yet been located on the shore of Xorlh lake. 

5. Moose Lake Camp Sites. The earlier name of this very 
pretty lake was Mouse lake, being so named on all of the early 
maps (1836-1848), and this name appears in the Waukesha county 
atlas of 1891. It is somewhat irregular in shape, being about 
three-fourths of a mile in length and slightly over one-fourth mile 
wide at its widest part, at its northern end. A club-shaped penin- 
sula enters the lake at its southern end continuing northward to 
near its middle. It is separated from Okauchee lake and the 
Oconomowoc river on its western side by a narrow strip of ele- 
vated land over which the highway from Nashota to Stone Bank 
passes. 

At the southern end of Moose lake, on the west side of the road 
and between it and the Okauchee shore there is a strip of pasture 
land belonging to the Walter Hansen, "Cedar Bay" farm. Tin's 
is a likely location for an aboriginal camp. An examination of 
it showed a few flint chips and fragments and hearth stones. 
Some flint points have been collected here. Similar evidences of a 



Waukcsha County Northern Townships 27 

camp site have also been found north of this place in gardens 
opposite the point where the Oconomowoc river enters I,:ike 
Okauchee, (NE*4 Sec. 30). The Potawatomi camped in early 
settlement days at the north end of Moose lake near "The Oaks" 
summer hotel and cottages. Mr. E. E. Reynolds, the proprietor, 
states that in his boyhood the Indians also occasionally camped 
in a wooded ravine near the hotel. A few flint and other stone- 
implements have been found in cultivated fields at the north end 
of the lake. All are in Section 19. No camp site is reported 01. 
the east shore. A few flint points have been found here. 

Pine and Beaver Lakes 

6. Pine Lake. The shores of this pretty lake are largely occu- 
pied with summer homes making a search for evidences of former 
native occupation difficult. On the west shore of the lake indi- 
cations of a former Indian camp have been found. The caretaker 
of one of these summer homes has a few flint and other implements 
found here. 

7. Beaver Lake. Two conical mounds are located on the 
west shore of Beaver lake. Mr. Arthur Gerth in reporting on 
them to the Society states that they are on sloping ground near 
the road to the Chenequa Golf Club grounds and within about 
one hundred feet of the lake shore. The two mounds are each 
about 30 feet in diameter and are separated from each other by 
a distance of thirty-five feet. Trees have been planted about each 
by some former owner of the land. 

Flint chips and fragments and a few flint points have been found 
near the mounds indicating a probable camp site. Mr. Gerth ( 1919) 
was informed that as late as thirty years ago Indians occasionally 
visited these tumuli. 

8. Monches Cemetery. Monches is located on the west side 
of the Oconomowoc river at the northern line of Merton town- 
ship. J. M. Le Count in his History of Holy Hill, published in 
1891, reports the location of an Indian cemetery on a knoll near 
the bank of the Oconomowoc at a distance of one-half mile east 
of the village. Pie states that the Indian chief Monches was 
buried there, (p. 245.) 



28 Wisconsin Ar die olo gist 

Hartland and Merton 

9. Hartland Mounds. Mounds were reported by Mr. Edward 
Krause (October 10, 1907) as located on the W. Rowell and S. 
Tenney farms on the east side of the Bark river, at a distance 
of about one mile north of Hartland. Mr. C. M. Beaumont of 
Merton (Nov. 29, 1901) reported those on the Tenney farm as 
"two fine lizard (panther) mounds". These were in the NWJ4 of 
Section 35. Dr. Lapham * shows a group of mounds located north 
of the cemetery, on the Hartland to Merton road, at a distance of 
one-' mile north of I lartland, and just north of the mounds reported 
by Messrs. Krause and Beaumont. These consist of a line of five 
mounds arranged in a north and south line on the west side of the 
road. The most southerly of these is a straight linear, the 
southern end of which projects into the cemetery and which is 
crossed by an east and west road. The other mounds in their 
order are an effigy (bear type) and three linear mounds. All 
of these are parallel sided linears, the last has an east and west 
direction. All were in a woodland in 1850. A short distance 
east of the last or most northerly linear mound, on the east side 
of the road to Merlon, he shuws a single conical mound. North 
of this and also on the east side of the road its head extending into 
the road there is a turtle effigy. Its general direction is south- 
west and northeast. (SE% Sec. 26.) 



10. Merton Mounds. About Merton Dr. Lapham shows 
several mound groups. Two conical mounds :ire shown to be 
located on a hill on the south side of the Bark river, at a distance 
of about one-eighth mile east of Merton, on what was later the 
]. M. Gavitt estate, in the NW*4 of Section 24. Another group 
was located east of the village on the John Mitchell farm, in the 
NE^4 of Section 24, also south of the river. Mr. Mitchell 
reported to the Society (Nov. 30, 1901) that one very prominent 
mound remained on his farm. Lapham shows this group to have 
consisted of two conical and two linear mounds.* A quarter of a 
mile northeast of these at the base of a hill, which he designates 
as Fort Hill, he shows two linear mounds. These are east of the 
river. They are in the northeast corner of the same quarter 
section. Two conical mounds are also shown as located three- 
fourths of a mile southwest of Merton, in the SW^ of the 
of Section 24.* 



Antiquites of Wisconsin, No. 1, PI. XXXI, p. 38. 



Waukesha County Northern Townships 29 

11. Lake Kesus Camp Site. The J. A. Rice and adjoining 
farms on the east shore of Lake Kesus, three-fourths of a mile 
north of Merton (N*/2 Section 13) have yielded numbers of flint 
points and some stone axes and celts. Dr. J. A. Rice, an early 
collector and student of local archeology, formerly possessed a 
collection of these. 

LISBON TOWNSHIP 

The Bark river flows through the northwestern part of Lisbon 
township and several streams tributary to the Fox river through 
its southeastern part, their courses being to the south and to the 
west. This township has been described as possessing an endless 
variety of hills and valleys, woodlands and prairies. 

1. Sussex Camp Sites. An Indian camp site is indicated 
on the banks of the creek which flows through Sussex village, 
in the SW^ of Section 23 and similar sites occur at other points 
between this place and Templeton, east of it, and the eastern 
boundary of the township. From these places besides flint im- 
plements and stone celts a number of copper spearpoints, a pipe, 
a stone plummet and a slate gorget have been collected in past 
years. The Potawatomi are known to have camped here in early 
days of settlement. 

2. Merton Bird Effigy. At a distance of about one mile north- 
east of Merton Dr. Lapham located a solitary bird effigy (NWJ4 
Sec. 19). His figure of this effigy is labelled "The Cross at 
Merton". He shows its flight as directed to the northeast. He 
gives the length of its head as 30 feet, the length of its body 
as 175 feet and its direction as NE. The length of its out- 
stretched wings are given as each 100 feet and their direction as 
SE. The height of wings and body are stated to be 2 feet.* He 
says : "An excavation has been made in the cross at the inter- 
section of the arms, and bones found of a large size, probably 
of some Indian buried there." 

3. Billings Mounds and Camp Site. A short distance north- 
east of the house of Mr. Isaac Billings, on his farm (SE*4 Sec. 
32) are indications of a flint workshop and camp site. These are 
on the top of a small sandy hill. Bushels of flint chips and frag- 

*Antiq. of Wis., PI. XXXI, Nos. 1 and 3, p. 39. 



30 U'iscousin Archeologist 



ments are strewed over its top. The owner of the property states 
that there were formerly several mounds on the land. These have 
been obliterated through cultivation. 
Reported by Mr. S. G. Haskins, 1908. 

MKXUMONEE TOWNSHIP 

The Menomonee river entering at the middle of its northern 
boundary, flows through the northeast quarter of this township 
and along the eastern boundary of its southeast quarter. The 
Fox and its two tributary streams drain the western half of the 
township. Early settlers mention game as being formerly very 
plentiful in this township. Deer roamed about, often in droves 
of thirty or forty. Wolves were numerous and troublesome. 
\Yild turkeys were often seen. Panthers were occasionally en- 
countered. 

1. Menomonee Falls Burial. In a paper read before the Mil- 
waukee Natural Science Association, in 1898, Mr. E. C. Perkins. 
a son of the former veteran Wisconsin collector of archeological 
materials, Frederick S. Perkins of Burlington, gave the informa- 
tion that "in 1873 a man in ( Menomonee Falls) Waukesha county, 
while digging a cellar for a house, found at six feet below the 
surface the bones of seven persons laid in a circle with their heads 
toward the center, where he found a slate image of a bird with 
large projecting eye-like appendages. This birdstone has been 
for many years in the collection of the Milwaukee Public museum. 

Camp sites are indicated in several places on the banks of the 
Menomonee river near Menomonee Falls. Mr. T. W. Swift 
of Milwaukee reported (June 6, 1908) the finding in his boyhood 
of many flint chips and arrow and spearpoints on the fields along 
this stream. 

2. Fussville Camp Site. From a camp site on the Thiene farm 
on the Menomonee river at Fussville, Peter J. Herr, a Milwaukee 
collector, obtained a collection of flint blanks, arrow and spear- 
points and a stemmed perforator. Some of these points are tri- 
angular and others of stemmed, notched and barbed forms. A 
single flat stemmed copper spearpoint and a triangular knife made 
of light brown quartzite were also obtained here by him. 

3. Hyland Camp Site. An Indian village site possessing 
all of the ordinary evidence of former residence is located on the 



Wankesha County Northern Townships 31 

J. E. Hyland farm, on a creek tributary to the Menomonee (SWJ4 
Sec. 36). When visited on October 7, 1906, these evidences were 
most abundant on the west side of the creek. In early days this 
land had on it a tine maple grove which the Menomonee Indians 
visited and in which they camped for the purpose of making 
maple sugar. On the bank of the creek there was formerly an 
interesting Indian fireplace circular in form with an opening 
on one side and a pit in its center. At the opening it had a straight 
extension. It was constructed of small boulders and may have been 
used in the boiling of sap. Suckers came up the creek in former 
days from the river. These the natives clubbed and speared. 

4. Roebel Camp Site. A camp site is also indicated on the 
Roebel farm on the west bank of the Menomonee, in the SE^4 oi 
Section 25. The owner has collected from this site a consider- 
able number of Indian stone implements. 

According to Mr. Hyland the Indian trail from Milwaukee fol- 
lowed in places about 10 rods to the north of the present Lisbon 
road, elsewhere the road now follows its course. 

5. "Wild Marsh" Camp. A large camp of Menomonee, with 
a few Chippewa Indians, was located on what is called the "Wild 
Marsh". This has more the appearance of a small lake* than 
a marsh, and covers parts of Sections 21, 22, 27 and 28, containing 
about 500 acres. It has always grown wild cranberries. The 
value of these the Indians knew. During the winter of 1842, 
which was a memorable one in Menomonee, the Indians furnished 
nearly all the meat the white settlers had. They exchanged 
venison for various articles.* These sections lie to the east of the 
Fox river. 

SUMMIT TOWNSHIP 

In Summit township there are six large lakes, Oconomowoc, 
Upper and Lower Xashotah, Upper and Lower Nemahbin, and 
Silver Lake. Oconomowoc lake, l-)4 miles in length and three- 
fourths of a mile wide at its widest part, is perhaps the most attrac- 
tive of these fine bodies of water. It lies at the north line of the 
northeast quarter of the township. The two Xashotah and the. two 
Nemahbin lakes form a chain from north to south along the eastern 
boundary. The Nashotah lakes are spring fed. These four lakes 



West, Hist. To., Hist. Wauk. Co., 753. 



32 Wisconsin Archeologist 

are drained by the Bark river which flows from them in a south- 
westerly direction to the south line of the township. They are one 
mile or less in length. The greatest breadth of Silver lake is about 
one mile. On a state land office map, 1836, this lake is called Clear 
lake. A portion of Golden lake projects into the southwest 
corner of Summit township. Lapham's map of Wisconsin, 1849, 
names it Gold lake. Otis lake, Crooked lake and Middle and 
Lower Genessee lakes are smaller lakes than any of the above. 
The Oconomowoc river flows through 1 the northwest corner of 
the township. 

The highest portions of the shores of Oconomowoc lake are from 

33 to 40 feet above the water. "The north and east shores are 
the steepest; along the south shore kame ridges and swamps are 
found alternately; the west shore has a fairly gradual slope." 
Two peninsulas project into the lake, one from its north and one 
from its east shore, giving the lake a fishhook outline. "Springs 
enter the lake only along the east shore. They are largest and most 
numerous in the vicinity of Spring Bank."* 

Oconomowoc Lake 

1. Dixon Effigy. In his book, "The Antiquities of Wiscon- 
sin",' Dr. Lnpham (Plate XXX) locates a turtle Hfigy at the 
southeast corner of Oconomowoc lake, on the east side of the 
road leading south from ( )conoino\voc to Summit Corners, in 
fractional Section 3. According to his daughter, the late Miss Julia 
A. Lapham, this mound was located where the Arthur Dixon 
home now stands, in ( )conomowoc. It was of large size and its 
head was directed toward the lake. About half a mile south of 
this mound where a diagonal road from Oconomowoc unites 
with the above mentioned road there were two linear mounds. 
These were between the forks of the roads, in the southeast corner 
of Section 3. 

2. Armour Mound. Dr. Rogers reported (December 20, 
1907) the presence of a mound on the P. D. Armour place, at 
the west end of Oconomowoc lake. It had been explored. 

3. Hewitts Point Camp Site. On this point projecting into 
Oconomowoc lake from its northern shore the Indians formerly 
camped in small numbers. 



"Inland Lakes of Wis., 49. 



\l\nikcsha County Northern Townships 33 

Oconomowoc River 

4. Worthington Camp Site. The "Menomonee" Indians 
camped in early days of settlement on the Worthington place, 
on the east side of the Oconomowoc river, in the NE% of the 
NE^4 of Section 5, at Oconomowoc. On this place there is a pond 
several hundred feet in diameter. Other Oconomowoc river sites 
are reported under Oconomowoc township. Some flint and other 
implements have been collected here. 

Silver Lake 

5. Lakeside Mounds. These were described by Mr. Erskin 
Stansbury, the former owner of the farm on the north shore of 
Silver lake, on which they were located, in a letter written to I. A. 
Lapham, then state geologist, in 1852. He says : "I have marked 
on the diagram the position of the mounds on my place. The 
three to the north are simply long straight mounds some 2 or 3 
feet high and seem to have been made with little regard to the 
points of the compass. The one east of my house is what I call 
a "Man" mound. It has the body, arms (at right angles or nearly 
so) and legs of a man, but the head, or what should be the head, 
is prolonged indefinitely, running off by a gradual taper to 
nothing. 

On his Plate XXX, in "The Antiquities of Wisconsin", Dr. 
Lapham gives the exact location of the mounds on the Stansbury 
farm, which place he probably visited after receiving Mr. Stans- 
bury's letter. A group of three straight linear mounds are shown 
at a distance of one-fourth mile northwest of the Stansbury house 
on the north shore of Silver lake on ground formerly occupied 
by a woodland. Two are quite close together, one behind the 
other. The direction of the first is to the north, of the second 
to the northeast. A short distance west of the last is a third mound 
of the same size as the others. Its direction is also to the north- 
east. These mounds are in the SWJ4 of the- NWJ4 of Section 9. 
A single linear mound is shown a short distance west of the Stans- 
Imrv house, on the north side of the Silver lake road (NWJ4 of 
the SW^4 Sec. 9). Its direction was nearly east and west. A 
short distance east of the house was a turtle effigy which Mr. 
Stansbury thought to represent a man. It was located near the 
edge of a tract of elevated land, its head being directed to the 
southwest, toward the lake. It was located near the east line 



34 Wisconsin Archcologist 

of the SE*4 of Section 9. All these mounds which were on and 
about the resort known as Silver Lake Beach, have been destroyed 
by the past cultivation of the land. 

6. North Shore Camp Site. On the J. Hill farm on the north 
shore of Silver lake, on the west side of the north and south road 
from Oconomowoc to Silver Lake, indications of a former Indian 
camp site have been found, (ilenn H. Hill, a son of the owner, re- 
ported to the Society, February 15, 1905, that flint chips and frag- 
ments and hearthstones were scattered over the surface of a 
field on this farm. From it he collected numerous potsherds, 
some of them with a cord-marked ornamentation, small triangular 
and other small flint points, and several pebble hammer stones. 
Some unbroken ground near this field promised further discoveries 
when disturbed. Since then a stone celt, and additional arrow 
points and hand hammers have been collected here by others. 
This site is in the X\\" T 4 <>f the S\V^4 of Section 9, and adjoins 

the Lakeside mounds. 

7. Silver Lake Kfligv. ( )n the south shore of Silver lake a 
beautiful elevated point protects into the lake. Situated in about 
the middle of this point, its head near its end, is one of the finest 
examples of the turtle effigy mound existing in \Yaukesha county. 
The end of the pnir.t is elevated about 35 feet above the water. 
The level grassy top of this point is almost devoid of trees, there 
being only a small number of hickory and cedar trees upon it. 
The head and two sides of the point have a steep slope, the sides 
being especially steep. These side slopes are overgrown with 
young poplar, aspen and hickory trees, with young cedars growing 
everywhere beneath their shade. The land in the rear of the 
mound is covered with a grove of hickory and oak, this forming 
a fine background for the great effigy. 

Mr. \Y. P. Butler, who took careful measurements of this mound 
on August 21, 1876, gives its total length as 281 feet, the length 
of its long tapering tail being 210, and its body 71 feet. He gives 
the elevation of its head above the soil upon which it is constructed 
as 5 feet, at the middle of its body as 3 feet, in the middle of its 
rear limbs as 3 T / 2 feet and at the end of its body as \y 2 feet. From 
this point its height diminishes gradually to the end of the tail. 
The head of the effigy is about 250 feet from the water's edge. 
Butler mentions that the head of the mound had been dug into 



Waukesha Conut\ Northern Townships 35 

by someone, but without particularly defacing it. A tree stump 2 
feet in diameter was then situated near the end of its west front 
limb. 

Dr. Lapham shows this mound in his Plate XXX. He surveyed 
it together with other earthworks in Summit township, in 1851. 
On August 13, 1907, the Messrs. W. H. Ellsworth, L. R. Whitney 
and C. E. Brown, members of the Wisconsin Archeological So- 
ciety, first visited it and became impressed with it and the beauty 
of its location. The property, in the NW*4 of Section 16, was 
then owned by Airs. Dan McDonald, in earlier days by Capt. A. 
Stone. 

This fine ancient Indian monument is now happily preserved on 
the "Indian Mound Reservation" of the Milwaukee County Boy 
Scouts, being acquired by this organization in 1921. On July 17, 
1921, a tablet, the gift of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, 
was unveiled at .the mound with impressive ceremonies by the 
Boy Scouts. Mr. Charles E. Brown of Madison, the secretary of 
the Society, delivered the unveiling address. A quite large num- 
ber of Milwaukee and other visitors were also present. 

8. Silver Lake Mounds. These mounds are all located on the 
south shore of Silver lake, within short distances of the great 
turtle effigy. A small conical mound about 18 feet in diameter 
and IJ/2 feet high, on July 17, 1921, inconspicuous in the high 
grass, is located in the rear of a s.ummer cottage, and at a distance 
of some 300 feet of the lake shore. It lies within about 700 feet 
of the entrance to the Indian Mound Reservation. A linear mound 
'65 feet long, 16 feet wide and 3 feet high is in a small grove of oak 
trees on land belonging to the Fred Fiedler farm. Its direction is 
about 30 north of west. It is within about 300 feet of the south- 
east corner of Silver lake, the road through the grove passing by it. 
Thirty-five feet west o'f it is a small kettle hole. Another linear 
mound is in the northwest corner of a cultivated field of the Fiedler 
farm, one end of it projecting into the grove mentioned. It is 
about 300 feet west of the other mound and about 500 feet from 
the south shore of the lake. The road to the Reservation passes 
by it. This mound measures 67 feet in length, 18 feet in width 
and is 3^ feet high. Its direction is the same as that of the other 
linear mound. All of these mounds are in the X}/> of Section 16. 
Mr. Charles W. Lamb, August 4, 1908, first reported the existence 
of these mounds to the Societv. 



36 Wisconsin Archcologist 

A remnant of a linear mound which once crossed the highway, 
is to be seen opposite the Fiedler farm, on the road leading to 
Oconomowoc, and about one-eighth mile north of the Summit 
Center road (SE*4 Sec. 16). It was destroyed in road con- 
struction work. 

9. McDonald Mound and Garden Beds. An oval mound, with 
an east and west diameter of 40 and a north and south diameter 
of 42 feet is located in a second growth woodland on the Atkins 
(old John McDonald) farm, on the Summit Center road, at a 
distance of about three-fourths of a mile south of Silver lake 
and about the same distance west of Summit Corners. This 
mound, which lies in a thicket of young trees and brush, has been 
explored by unknown persons at some time in the past. It was 
constructed, the excavation shows, of black surface soil. Frag- 
ments of bone here indicate that it contained a burial or burials. 

About 350 feet from the entrance of the woodland among the 
trees and brush there are a series of low parallel ridges indicating 
the presence of a former Indian planting ground. Some of these 
beds are 110 longer very definite. They are from 3 J / 2 to 5 feet 
across and have narrow paths between them. In one place a line 
of thirtv of these beds wa> counted. There are about a quarter 
of an acre of them. The beds themselves all run in a general 
east and west direction. Dr. Rogers and Mr. C. F. P>rmvn visited 
this site with Mr. Fiedler, on July 17, 1921. 

10. South Shore Camp Site. In the year 1837 and perhaps 
earlier the Potawatomi Indians had a camp on the south shore 
of Silver lake where the mounds described are located. Dr. Cole, 
a former president of Xashotah mission and Drs. Adams and 
Breck preached to the Indians in this cam]). As little of this soil 
has been disturbed there has been but little opportunity to find 
archeological traces of this camp. Some flint chips and flint frag- 
ments have been found in digging for the foundation of one of 
the cottages adjoining the Reservation. In the vicinity of one of 
the linear mounds Mr. Charles Lamb, in July, 1908, found a series 
of shallow depressions from 4 to 7 feet -in diameter, probably 
former provision caches. 

11. East Shore Mounds. On the east side of Silver lake there 
were a small number of mounds. One of these was located on 
August 13, 1907, in a cultivated field, in the SE*4 of Section 9., 



Waukesha County Northern Townships 37 

at a distance of about 400 feet from the T. M. E. R. & L. Co. right- 
of-way. This conical mound appears to have been originally 
about 20 feet in diameter. It was crossed by a wire fence, about 
5 feet of it being yet to be seen in the fields on either side of the 
fence. 

On the Lawrence Barry (old P. Chubb) farm (SW>4 Sec. 10) 
is located a mutilated linear mound. This is about 100 feet north 
of the highway, and a short distance west of the farm house. It 
appears to have been originally about 60 feet in length and about 
25 feet wide. This is the last remaining mound of a group of 
seven conical and three short linear mounds which Lapham noted 
as existing on this farm in 1851. Dr. F. C. Rogers remembers 
that three small conical mounds were located in the field north- 
east of the Barry house. 

This group of mounds, according to Lapham's Plate XXX, 
extended also over the Thos. Brakefield farm on the south side 
of the highway (NWJ4 Sec. 15) being distributed over the entire 
quarter section from south to north. Two conical mounds were 
on the Barnard farm south of this (SWJ4 Sec. 15). The mounds 
south of the highway were eleven conical or round mounds, five 
straight linear mounds and three tapering linear mounds. Only 
faint traces of this large mound group remain. 




FIG. 1 



A single effigy, probably intended to represent the bear, was 
located by Dr. F. C. Rogers and Mr. C. E. Brown, on the Barnard 
farm on July 17, 1921. This interesting effigy lies on the edge 
of a former gravel pit in a grove of young trees on the east side 



38 irisccnsin Archeologist 

of the north and south road to the Summit cheese factory which 
forms the west line of Section 15. Lapham does not include it 
in his plat of the mounds here. The rear foot of the animal has 
been mutilated by the digging of the pit. The mound is built 
of black surface soil about three feet in depth at its deepest part. 
The length of the mound is 93 feet and the greatest width of the 
body 21 feet. Its direction is 40 degrees east of north. 

Airs. 1 lenrietta Atkins, the daughter of Mr. Barnard, has agreed 
to preserve this effigy. 

In the destruction of one of the mounds on the Brnketield farm 
many pieces of se:i shell and pieces of wood and bark were found, 
according to Mr. ( ieorge L. Boundey. The pieces of shell were 
oblong and oval in form, some of them from \ l / 2 to 2 inches in 
length and from three-fourths to one inch in width. Most were 
perforated and were probably in use as ornaments. 

Oiis and Crooked Lakes 

12. Reguhi Mounds. Twenty or more years ago the best known 
group of Indian mounds in western \Yaukesha county \v:is that 
located on the farm of Jacob Re^ula, named in the county atlas 
of 1921 as "Mound Hill Kann." and on the Dibble and Brown 
(former P. Schuyler farm) farm adjoining it on the west. These 
two farms were located about one mile east of the cross roads 
settlement know-n as Summit Center, on the north side of the Sum- 
mit Center and Delafield road. Dr. Lapham mentions these 
mounds in 'The Antiquities of Wisconsin" (p. 38) and figures 
a few of them in his Plate XXX (1850). Mr. L. R. Whitney 
first called the attention of the Society to the group in 1902, some 
of the least notable of the mounds being then already destroyed 
or in course of obliteration. In 1904 Mr. A. V. Drown of Ocono- 
mo woe prepared a plat of the remaining mounds for the same 
organization, locating thereon also the mounds which had been 
destroyed. 

The group was located a short distance to the north of Crooked 
lake and near the edge of a marsh which at the time of their con- 
struction was probably the northern end of Otis lake. It con- 
sisted originally of 21 mounds, one of which was conical, two oval, 
seven linear and 11 effigy mounds. Of these mounds, one conical 
and one oval were located in the barnyard of the Regula farm- 
house. One of these, according to Mr. Regula, had been explored 



Waukesha County Northern Townships 



.39 



by a party of Delafield students in about the year 1893, and some 
human bones and charcoal found at its base. Both had been 
obliterated when Mr. C. E. Brown and Mr. L. R. Whitney visited 
this locality on October 8, 1905. A short distance west of these, 
at the head of the wet marsh, were two panther type effigies and 




-0- 




.-* 
w 



c$ 



^ --..,- 




/? & 



FIG. 2 

a turtle mound. The finest of the panther mounds had obtained the 
local name of the "Horse." Between these effigies a trail to 
Oconomowoc was crossed by another trail from the southwest. 
Beyond these, a short distance to the northwest, was an oval mound 
which had been excavated in about the year 1875 and human bones 
and a broken pottery vessel found. Northwest of this mound 
was a bird effigy and two panther type effigies. East of it in a 
woodlot adjoining the Summit cemetery were five mounds, four 



40 Wisconsin Archeologist 

of them linear mounds and one a bird ( ?) mound. All but one 
linear mound had been mutilated and their outlines disturbed by 
relic hunters. 

Some distance to the north of the effigies at the trail crossing was 
a fine mink type effigy and a bird effigy, the latter under cultiva- 
tion in a field. A short distance to the east of the last another 
bird effigy had been destroyed by cultivation. On a hill north of 
this last effigy three short linear mounds and a turtle effigy had 
formerly been located, according to Lapham's illustration. 

The mounds of this group are shown in Figure 2. Their di- 
mensions as given by Drown are : 

1. Panther effigy. Total length about 100 feet; head de- 

troyed in field. Width of body 18 feet, height 3^ feet. 

2. Turtle effigy. Length 245 feet ; width of body between 

limbs 18 feet; height 4 feet. 

3. Panther effigy. Length 132 feet; height 4 feet. Has been 

excavated. 

4. Oval mound. Length 62 feet; width 12 and 16 feet. Ex- 

cavated. 

5. Linear. Length 32 feet ; width 18 feet ; height 3 to 4 feet. 

Excavated. 

6. Two linears, each 88 feet long ; width about 20 feet ; height 

3 to 4 feet. Excavated. 



S - 5 -. 

10 X 10 X 10 K6 X 7 X - 



FIG. 3 



7. Curved linear. Length 182 feet; width 14 to 22 feet; 

height 3 feet. Excavated. 

8. Bird effigy ? Length of body 42 feet ; wingspread 32 feet ; 

height 2 to 3 feet. Excavated. 



Waukesha County Northern Townships 41 

9. Bird effigy, known locally as "The Cross." Length 93 
feet; wingspread 74 feet; height 2 l / 2 feet. This effigy 
was platted by W. P. Butler, April 21, 1878. He gives 
the wingspread as 162 feet and the length of its body 
as 107 feet. The width of the body below the wings was 
24 feet. The body tapered to a rounded point. 

10. Panther effigy. Length 254 feet; width of body 18 feet; 

height 2 feet. 

11. Panther effigy. Length 315 feet; width of body 18 feet; 

height 2 feet. 

12. Mink type." Length 175 feet; greatest width of body 8^ 

feet ; height 2 feet. 

It is not known who excavated these mounds. It appears to 
have been done many years ago. This land was once heavily, 
forested. 

Some flint points and several stone celts have been found on 
this farm. Near the base of the hill mentioned indications of a 
flint workshop site were found. 

Mr. Fred Pabst of Oconomowoc, who is now the owner of 
this farm, has promised the Wisconsin Areheological Society to 
preserve the remaining mounds. 

13. Otis Lake Mounds. An oval mound was located by Mr. 
A. V. Drown on the east shore of Otis lake. This mound was 
60 feet long and 22 feet wide at its middle. Two other oval 
mounds had been destroyed in the surrounding cultivated field. 
This location is on the C. Walthers farm, in the NE*4 of Section 
22. On some maps the name of this lake is given as Upper 
Genesee. A possible camp site is also located here. Many flint 
implements and a broken grooved granite axe were obtained 
here up to 1908. 

14. Crooked Lake Camp Sites. In about the year 1845 a small 
number of "Chippewa" Indians are reported to have camped on 
the John A. Butler farm, on the north shore of this lake. This 
location is in the N J / 2 of Section 23, a short distance south of the 
Regula farm. 

A camp site is also located on the Butler farm, on the east 
shore of Crooked lake. A short distance east of the north end of 
this lake and near the lower end of a small swamp Mr. Drown 
found a workshop site, numerous flint chips and broken and re- 



42 Wisconsin Archeologist 

jected flint implements being in evidence. Here he collected also 
51 well-made flint arrow points. In digging on this site he re- 
covered a stone ball and two flint "spades." Other implements, 
a hammer stone, a broken slate gorget and arrow points, were 
found elsewhere on this farm in 1908. 

A camp and workshop site has also been located on the wes! 
shore of Crooked lake. 

Nashotah and Ncuiahbln Lakes 

15. "Sawbuek" Mound. One mile west of the west shore of 
Lower Xashotah lake- is a curious tongs-shaped earthwork. It is 
located partly in the \\YJ4 ()l Section 13 and extends across the 
north and south road and T. M. K. K. & L. Co. right-of-way into 
the NE.J4 of Section 14. When Dr. Lapham and his son, Charles 
Lapham, made a survey of this earthwork on May 31, 1875, it was 
located on property belonging to Mr. Parker Sawyer. It is to- 
day on the property of the Mr. Kred Pabst, on land until recently 
owned by L. I Mister. It> general direction is northeast and south- 
west. This figure consisted of two long tapering embankments 
crossing each other with about 120 feet of their southwest end. 
Near this point the two arms are each about 10 feet wide and 
their height about 2 feet. Xear their termination their height is 
\ l / 2 feet. The two embankment* were, according to the scale of 
the Lapham plat each about 643 feet long. Each limb tapered 
toward both emK At one end they were about 43 and at the 
other about 106 feet apart. Tin's mound was visited on July 17, 
1921, by Dr. V. C. Rogers and C. E. Brown. The Xorwood elec- 
tric line station is located within a short distance of the mound, 
which is in a farm dooryard surrounded by a few scattered trees. 
The old Pfister farmhouse stands on the tips of the two limbs at 
a distance of 100 feet beyond where they cross. Only 68 feet 
of the embankments below the point of crossing remain, the re- 
mainder having been destroyed by the electric line, the highway 
and the cultivated field into which they extended. 

At a distance of 220 feet south of the ends in the cultivated field 
the Messrs. Lapham found a single linear mound 157 feet long and 
having a uniform width of 25 feet. In 1908 Mr. A. V. Drown 
found a conical mound in the rear of some cottages on the west 
side of Lower Xashotah lake in the NW^ of Section 13, east of 
the "Sawbuek." This mound was later explored by Mr: Leon 
Pfister, who found a bone burial at or below its base. 





"Sawbuck" Mound, 
Summit 

Plate S 



Waukcsha County Northern Townships 



43 



16. "Swan" Mound. This mound was platted on November 8, 
1875, by Mr. Henry Lapham, a son of Dr. I. A. Lapham. Dr. 
Lapham referred to it as the "Swan" because of a curious resem- 
blance which its outline bore to pictures of that bird. It was 
located on the west shore of Upper Nemahbin lake near the sum- 
mer home of Mr. George I. Robinson (NW^4 of Section 13). In 
his brief description of it Mr. Henry Lapham says: "This mound 
faces the east and is about 800 feet from a marsh that was for- 
merly a lake. It is about 15 or 20 feet above the water." His sur- 




vey is reproduced in Figure 4. Mr. W. P. Butler, who made a 
plat of the mound on August 14, 1876, gives the height of its 
neck at from 3 to 6 inches and of its body from one foot to 18 
inches. He shows that the stump of a tree 25 inches in diameter 
stood on the end of the body. He says that it was located "20 rods 
from the extreme southern end of Lower Nashotah lake." 

Dr. F. C. Rogers and C. E. Brown visited the Robinson place on 
July 17, 1921, but could find no trace of this mound, which had 
evidently been destroyed. 

17. Houghton Cache. A cache or hoard of sixty-one flint 
blanks and two flint arrow points was found buried on the R. 



44 ]l'"iscoiisiii Archaeologist 

Iloughton place on the eastern shore of Upper Nemahbin lake, 
in the E^ of Section 13. No further particulars concerning this 
interesting discovery are available. Mr. A. V. Drown reported 
it to the Society November 13, 1908. 

18. Nemahbin Group. A group of three conical or round 
mounds was located on the narrow neck of land between UPJKT 
and Lower Nemahbin lakes (NW^j of Section 24) a short dis- 
tance west of the Bark river. Two of the mounds were destroyed 
in the grading of the T. M. E. R. & L. Co. right-of-way in 1905. 
They were 50 feet west of a clubhouse located here and were 
strung out in a northeast and southwest line. The mound nearest 
the clubhouse was 25 feet in diameter and 2 feet high. A hickory 
tree 12 inches in diameter grew on one edge. This mound was 
within several feet of the north line of the right-of-way. 

Forty feet southwest of it, in the right-of-way, another mound 
which was 25 feet in diameter, had been destroyed. Twelve feet 
southwest of this mound and also in the right-of-way, was the 
third mound, which was also destroyed. It was 15 feel in diameter. 
The mound which remained was according to Mr. Charles IMYiffer 
of Oelafield excavated in about the year 1897 by a Mr. Mills. He 
found at the base a large number of bones but no skulls. 

Moth Mr. I'feitVer and Mis> Agnes Sprrry of Dclalield state 
that in about the year 1850 a large number of Potawatomi Indians 
camped at this place. 

Mr. L. R. \Yhitneyand Mr. ('. F. Brown reported these mounds 
to the Society on March 2, 1907. A barbed iron harpoon point 
was found here in 1908 by Mr. C-ieorge Schuster. 

19. Sugar Camp. Sugar Island, also later known as Allis or 
Dog island, was the favorite sugar-making site of the local Pota- 
watomi. As a boy Mr. 1'feiffer was often present at these- maple 
sugar makings, which began in the latter part of February and 
continued until March. The trees were tapped by giving the trunk 
several sharp cuts with a knife and inserting a grooved stick. Fre- 
quently, when of large size, several spiles were driven into a 
single tree. Hung upon these, or on the ground below, a pail was 
placed to catch the sap. This was boiled in a kettle and after- 
ward cooled in large oblong tin pans. The maple sugar was fre- 
quently traded at the village store for white sugar. (Reported 
March 3, 1907.) 



\\-\inkcsha County Xortliern Townships 45 

20. Lower Xemahbin Group. A group of seven conical mounds 
was located on the E. F. Genrich (old Cox) farm on the north 
shore of Lower Nemahbin lake, in the X\Y}4 of Section 24. 
These mounds were platted hy C. E. Brown and L. R. Whitney 
on March 2, 1907. They were strung out in an irregular line at 
distances of from 61 to 85 feet from the water's edge. The small- 
est was 15 and the largest 45 feet in diameter. The distance be- 
tween the mounds at the east and west ends of the group was 235 
feet. Most of the mounds were in consequence of cultivation and 
exploration somewhat irregular in outline. The pasture in which 
most of the mounds were located was grassy and almost devoid 
of trees and brush. The bank of the lake slopes rather abruptly 
to the water. On June 6, 1908, the second mound from the eastern 
end of the group was removed by Mr. E. F. Genrich and Mr. 
George Schuster to make room for a summer cottage for the Ten- 
nis brothers, of Milwaukee. At its base the bones of eight skele- 
tons were found, seven of the skulls being those of adults and one 
that of a child. In the center of the burials was a considerable 
quantity of charcoal as if a fire had been kindled there during the 
interment of the dead. Numerous flint chips were scattered 
through the soil of the mound. This mound was thirty feet in 
diameter but had probably been larger. On June 7th, the explora- 
tion of the mound at the eastern end of the group, 45 feet in diam- 
eter, was undertaken by these men and Mr. A. V. Drown. At its 
base, near the west side of the mound, a burial was encountered. 
The head was turned toward the south. A broken spear point, 
a thin, sharp flint flake and a fragment of pottery were found in 
the soil removed from the mound. Flint- chips were also scattered 
through the soil of this mound. (Reported by Mr. Drown.) 

Another of these mounds was excavated some years previous 
to 1907 by unknown persons. After the exploration the bones of 
the burials remained strewn all over the ground. Dr. Nixon, who 
afterward visited the site, counted among these twenty human 
humeri. Some of the other mounds are reported to have been' 
explored by a Mr. Reising, who found human bones and a few 
stone implements in them. 

A quartzite knife was found by Mr. Genrich on his farm in 1908. 

21. Hark River C'amp Site. A cam]) site is located on the Allis 
and Bowman places on the west shore of Lower Xemahbin lake, 
south of where the Bark river flows out of the lake toward Crooked 



46 Wisconsin Archeologist 

lake. Many flint points and some stone axes and celts have been 
collected here, according to a report made to the Society by A. V. 
Drown in 1908. The north bank of the river opposite this site is 
marshy. This site is in the \Y l / 2 of Section 24 and SEj4 of Sec- 
tion 23. 

Genesee Lakes 

22. Genesee Mounds. Little- investigation has been undertaken 
of the archeology of two small lakes known as Middle and Lower 
Genesee lakes. Two linear mounds have been reported as occur- 
ring on the G. Pabst property on the north shore of Middle Genesee 
in Section 22. There is a linear mound also on the C. Leavitt 
estate property. Mr. E. K. Nye reported the presence of mounds 
on the Williams place on the east shore of Lower Genesee lake 
(October, 1909). 

Golden Lake 

23. Golden Lake Camp Sites. This pretty lake is located in 
the southwestern corner of the township, its northern part extend- 
ing into Jefferson county. Mr. George A. West reported to the 
Society on October 16, 1903, that evidences of a former Indian 
camp site existed at the southwest side of the lake, on Mr. Her- 
man Piantke's farm in the NW^ of Section 31. Here he collected 
numbers of flint chips, arrow points and pottery fragments. Local 
collectors had also gathered a few arrow points here. This site 
is about two acres in extent and about six feet above the lake level. 

A camp site is also indicated on the east shore of the lake, in the 
S l / 2 of Section 30. Here scattered hearthstones and a few flint 
chips were found by C. E. Brown during a visit made to this lake 
on October 15, 1922. The surrounding fields were generally un- 
favorable for examination. Several stone pecking hammers and 
a celt have been found by collectors on this side of the lake. In 
early days of settlement a few Potawatomi are reported to have- 
camped on the shores of this lake. 

24. Lower Bark River Camp Sites. The sites of aboriginal 
camps are found in several places along the Bark river between 
Crooked lake and Utica, at the southern limits of Summit town- 
ship. These have yielded besides the usual flint refuse, flint 
points, hammer stones, and a few pieces of cord-marked pottery. 
Small groups of Potawatomi camped and hunted in this locality 
in the late thirties and earlv forties. 



Waiikesha County Northern Townships 47 

DELAFIELD TOWNSHIP 

In this township are two large lakes, Nagawicka, about 2^4 
miles in length and nearly a mile in width at its widest part, and 
the western half of Pewaukee lake, the longest lake in Waukesha 
county. Nagawicka lies in the course of the Bark river which 
enters it on the east side near the north end and leaves on the 
west side near the south end. The small northern basin of this 
lake has a maximum depth of 45 feet, and the larger, southern 
portion of 94.5 feet. Delafiejd village is located at its southern 
end. Nearly three miles of the waters of Pewaukee lake are in this 
township. The waters of this lake are derived from three small 
creeks and from a number of springs. Pewaukee creek, its outlet, 
leaves the lake at its eastern end and flows southward to the Fox 
river. In this end of the lake are three small islands. Pewaukee 
village is located at this end. Both lakes are beautiful bodies of 
water with many summer homes on their shores. On early maps 
of Wisconsin, 1836-1848, Pewaukee lake is frequently designated 
as Snail lake. 

Nagawicka Lake 

1. Delafield Camp Site. In early days of settlement the Pota- 
watomi camped on the west shore of the lake at and north of the 
outlet. At times from fifty to one hundred Indians were in resi- 
dence here trapping muskrats and spearing fish. From this site a 
trail ran northwest to the location of Nashota mission on Upper 
Nashota lake. There was also an Indian camp on the east side 
of the lake. 

2. Delafield Burial and Camp Sites. In working a gravel pit 
on the Jacobson farm in the NEJ4 oi Section 19, southwest of 
Delafield village an -Indian burial was disturbed. Accompanying 
this interment, which was but a few feet beneath the surface of 
the gravel knoll, was a necklace of copper beads, bear claws and of 
pointed copper pendants curved like bear claws. This discovery 
was reported to the Society by Mr. L. R. Whitney in 1903. Mr. 
Charles PfeifTer, a resident of the vicinity, had some of the beads 
and one of the claws. Several other graves are reported to have 
been previously disturbed here. Both Mr. Whitney and Mr. 
PfeifYer have collected arrow points in this locality. Miss Agnes 
Sperry furnished the information (March 3, 1907) that a short 



48 Wisconsin Archeologist 

distance to the north of this place, in the lowlands near the Bark 
river, there was a spring which was supposed to possess medicinal 
properties. This was in early days much frequented by the In- 
dians. 

Mr. Joseph Ringeisen reported to the Society in May, 1907, 
on the rinding of a copper spear point with silver studs and of a 
number of flint arrow and spear points on the Alden farm, on the 
north bank of the Bark river, where indications of a former camp 
site were also to be seen (SW^4 Sec. 18). Some flint points have 
also been found on the low ground on the opposite shore. 

3. Nagawicka Camp Site. On June 21, 1922, an examination 
was made of the northern shore of Lake Nagawicka and of the 
eastern shore to where the Bark river enters. The northern end 
is very marshy. In the lake at this point are several small wooded 
islands, the largest bein,^ occupied by a summer resort cottage. 
The lake banks are high and wooded, in one place rising in two 
terraces. Elsewhere there are several ridges with hollows between 
them. Several provision cache pits are located on the end of one 
ridge. One of these hollows was in early days the occasional 
camp site of a small number of Potawatomi. Being a well shel- 
n-red spot they sometimes remained here during the winter hunt- 
ing small game apd fishing through the ice. At the northeast 
corner of the lake there are some small stands of tamarack. ( )n 
the Vettelson farm near this place the Indians also camped some 
sixty years ago. On a flat in the rear of some cottages, on the 
Christenson farm ( SE*4 Sec. 5), on this shore of the lake, another 
camp site is indicated. Here flint points and several stone axes 
were found by Mr. Edward S. Thubauville, a former member of 
the Society. Here he also found evidence of a flint workshop 
and several large pieces of marine shells. 

He reported the site to the Society in August, 1905. 

4. Bark River Camp Site. A favorite Potawatomi camp 
ground was about a spring on the Warren farm on the east side 
of the Bark river, in the SE% of Section 3. Some Indian flint 
implements have been found here. This site is about one-half 
mile south of Hartland. Reported to the Society by Mr. Edward 
Krause, October 20, 1907. 



Waiikesha County Northern Townships 49 

Pewaukee Lake (West End) 

5. Lakeside Camp Site. An Indian camp site is located on the 
O. Bjorquist farm, on the north shore of Pewaukee lake, adjoin- 
ing the Lakeside hotel grounds on the east, in the SE*4 of Section 
12. From this site Dr. Joseph Quin of Milwaukee collected dur- 
ing a number of years previous to 1902 a large number of flint 
chips, flakes, spalls and rejects, arrow and spear points, knives, 
scrapers and other flint implements. Also several small stone 
celts, and fragments of cord-marked pottery vessels very probably 
Algonkian. A visit made to this locality in 1905 resulted in the 
finding of numerous scattered hearth stones, a broken stone celt 
and a number of notched and triangular flint points. The presence 
of flint chips and fragments on the Lakeside property and on the 
farm adjoining the Bjorquist farm on the east showed that the 
Indian camp ground extended also on to these places. 

6. Buena Vista Burial. An Indian burial was disturbed in the 
working of a small gravel pit on the Sullivan place at Buena Vista, 
at the west end of Pewaukee lake, in the SWJ4 of Section 15. 
There is no record of the finding of stone or other implements 
with this interment. Mr. Paul Joers reported this record to the 
Society in 1911. 

PEWAUKEE TOWNSHIP 

The eastern half of Pewaukee lake projects into the northwest 
quarter of this township for a distance of two miles, Pewaukee 
village being located at its nose. It is drained at this point by 
Pewaukee creek, which flows in a southeasterly direction to the 
Fox, which flows in a southwesterly direction across the south- 
east quarter of the township, and through the city of Waukesha, 
in Waukesha township. A creek flows into Pewaukee lake on its 
north and another on its south shore. Another creek flows out of 
the township at its northeast corner and one at its southwest corner. 

At different times in the thirties Potawatomi camps were located 
along the Fox river and Pewaukee creek from Wankesha to Pe- 
waukee. 

Pewaukee Lake 

1. Channel Mound. An effigy mound, thought to be intended 
to represent the bear, is located on the farm of Mr. E. Channel 
NE*4, Sec. 6). A portion of it (the head) has been de- 



50 Wisconsin Archcologist 

stroyed by cultivation. This mound lies on the line between this 
and the adjoining Holger farm and is on the top of a small hillock 
surrounded by a marsh. This mound was originally about fifty 
feet in length, and thirty-two feet in width. It measures from 
fifteen to twenty-six inches in height. 



2. Holger Mounds. On the farm of Mr. H. Holger 
Sec. 5) there were formerly several mounds, thought to have been 
effigies. Of these only a trace remains. 

In the early days of settlement the Potawatomi Indians occa- 
sionally camped on this farm. 

Several creeks flow through this farm and the Channel farm 
finally uniting with another which flows southward to the north 
shore of Pewaukee lake. 



3. Wood Camp Site. On the farm of Mr. W. J. Wood 

Fract. Sec. 8) are indications of an early Indian village site. 
From a twelve acre lot on this farm a large number of stone and 
other implements have been recovered. 

This farm lies a short distance east of the creek mentioned in 
connection with the preceding sites. 

4. Griswold Camp Site. Mr. Griswold reports the location 
after 1890 of an Indian camp (probably Winnebago) on the Fract. 
NW^4 of Section 8. This strip of land is heavily wooded and is 
now used as a camp ground by summer tourists. It lies at the 
mouth of the above mentioned creek. 



5. Young Mound. ( )n the farm of Mr. John Young 

Sec. 4) are traces of an effigy mound. It is situated on the high- 
est point of land on the farm. A short distance away is a fine 
spring in the neighborhood of which a large number of flint arrow 
points and a copper spear point have been found. 
A creek flowing southward to Pewaukee lies east of this farm. 
It is one of the tributaries of Pewaukee creek. It passes through 
the Hodgson and Haskins farms mentioned in the succeeding 
records. 

6. Hodgson Workshop. A flint workshop was located on the 
farm of Mr. John Hodgson (N^, SE}4, NW}4, Sec. 4) on the 
bank of a small stream tributary to the Fox. 

Flint chips and flakes were abundant in several places in the 
cultivated fields. 



Waukesha County Northern Townships 51 

7. Haskins Workshop. Traces of a flint workshop were for- 
merly to be seen on the farm of G. W. Haskins (S^, SE%, Sec. 
4). These have now been scattered by the cultivation of the field 
ip which they were located. 

All of the foregoing sites and mounds lie north and northwest 
of Pewaukee village at the east end of Pewaukee lake. 

8. Hodgson Village Site. Indications of a village site are found 
on a large hill about one-half mile east of the house on the farm 
of Mr, George Hodgson (Sec. 11). Large numbers of flint chips 
and fragments are scattered over the surface of the ground. At 
the base of the hill is a spring, which probably had much to do 
with the selection of this place as a village site. In about the year 
1890 a burial was exposed in a sand pit on this farm. The bones 
were too much decayed to be removed. An iron knife of trade 
pattern was afterwards found near this spot. 

A spring on this farm is the source of a small creek which flows 
northeast for a short distance to Spring creek. 

9. Mielenz Mounds. On the E. F. Mielenz place (Sec. 11) 
were several conical mounds. These have been long obliterated 
by cultivation and no information concerning their dimensions or 
contents is now obtainable. 

In digging a basement for a barn on the adjoining J. J. Weid- 
man farm a stone pipe was unearthed. These mounds and the 
foregoing village site are located over a mile east of Pewaukee 
village. 

10. Pewaukee Creek Village Site. This site is located on the 
Zillmer farm and extends over on to the Groh farm (SWJ4 Sec. 
10) both located where State Highway 19, between Pewaukee and 
Waukesha crosses Pewaukee creek. 

Flint chips, fragments and fireplace stones are numerous on the 
surface of these cultivated fields. Many flint points have been 
collected here by the owners of the farms and by other persons. 
A grooved stone axe and a stone celt have also been found. A 
patch of Indian corn hills is still to be seen near the highway. 
Burials were disturbed in a gravel pit by Mr. Groh on his farm. 
Reported by Mr. Charles G. Schoewe, April 7, 1908. 

11. Pewaukee Camp Site. Mr. Miles Griswold, an old resident 
of Pewaukee, states that in 1845 a Potawatomi Indian camp was 



52 Wisconsin Arclieologisi 

located just in the rear of the location of the present C., M. & 
St. Paul Ry. passenger depot, in Pewaukee. There were about 
400 Lndians in the camp which continued in this location until 
1846. In those days the lower lake was a marsh through which, 
a small stream flowed. 

This spot has very probably been the site of successive earlier 
Indian camps. In the year 1900, the C., M. & St. P. Ry. built a 
new depot near this place and in grading into the bank to the 
north and northwest, found many stone and metal implements 
and some human bones. There were about six skeletons it is re- 
ported. The specimens were divided among the workmen and 
soon lost track of. The Edgewood hotel stands on a part of this 
site. 

12. Tischaefer Camp Site. In 1842, the Potawatomi Indians 
had a camp on the south shore of Pewaukee lake, in about the 
place where the Tischaefer hotel now stands. 

Thirty or forty Indians were then in camp here. 

13. Chapman Camp Site. On the farm of Mr. William Chap- 
man (Sj^2, SW^4, Sec. 17), at a distance of about 200 rods east 
of his house, is the site of another early Potawatomi camp. Mr. 
Passault, an old settler of Pewaukee, remembers the camp at this 
place, which had about 35 occupants. They subsisted largely 
on the prairie chickens, where were abundant in the marshland 
near by. 

This location is south of Pewaukee lake and southwest of Pe- 
waukee village. 

14. Belleview Camp Site. Mr. Thomas Connor, an old settler, 
states that during pioneer days a camp of Potawatomi Indians was 
for several years located at the place now known as Belleview, 
on the south shore of Pewaukee lake. (Nj^ Fract. Sec. 18.) The 
number of Indians in this camp he remembers to have been about 
seventy. 

15. Clark Mounds. These earthworks are located on property 
belonging to Mr. Walter Clark (SW>4, SW^, Sec. 9). They 
are in a wooded pasture, on a hill overlooking the village of Pe- 
waukee and the east end of Pewaukee lake. The top of this hill 
is about 125 feet above the level of the lake. There are two 
mounds in this group, one being oval in outline and the other an 



Waukesha County Northern Townships ' 53 

effigy mound of the turtle type. They are separated from one an- 
other by a distance of one hundred feet. Both mounds are in a 
good state of preservation, and are in no immediate danger of de- 
struction. 

The oval mound has diameters of 45 and 22^2 feet. The turtle 
effigy is 40 feet long. The distance across both its fore and hind 
limbs is 27 feet. Its head is 15 feet long and 6 feet wide, and its 
short tail 6 feet long. 

16. Horn Effigy. This mound is located on property belonging 
to the Solomon Horn estate (EJ^, NWJ4, Sec. 16), at a distance 
of about one mile southeast of the village of Pewaukee. It is on 
the brow of a hill, in the corner of a cultivated field. This hill 
overlooks Pewaukee lake and an old lake bed, now a marsh and 
hay meadow, each about a mile distant. 

The mound is a poor example of the familiar "panther" type, 
lacking the tail, which was either never completed or has been 
destroyed. Its general direction is north and south. The material 
entering into its construction is largely clay and gravel. 

In the Waukesha county atlas of 1891 the Horn farm is desig- 
nated as "Spring Mound Farm." In the southwest corner of one 
of its fields there was a spring, the source of a creek which flowed 
south and then eastward to Pewaukee creek. This and other 
springs feeding this creek were well known to the Indians whom 
the settlers found in this vicinity. In 1898 Mr. Edward S. Perkins 
communicated the information that: "In 1842, Mr. Geo. PefTer 
found in a mound near Pewaukee the bones of a large skeleton. 
Broken off and imbedded in the skull just above one eye was the 
point of a large flint spearpoint. He preserved the flint, but not 
the skull." This mound is thought to have been located on the 
PefTer farm, lying south of the Horn farm, in the SW}4 of Sec- 
tion 16. A trail from Waukesha to the south shore of Pewaukee 
lake passed by the mounds on the Horn and Clark farms. 

17. School Section Group. Of this group, which was located 
in Section 17. Dr. I. A. Lapham gives an illustration and brief 
description : 

"But the most remarkable collection of lizards and turtles yet 
discovered is on the school section, about a mile and a half 
southeast from the village of Pewaukee. (See Plate XXIII.) 
This consists of seven turtles, two lizards, four oblong mounds, 



54 Wisconsin Archeologist 

and one of those remarkable excavations before alluded to. One 
of the turtle mounds, partially obliterated by the road, has a length 
of four hundred and fifty feet ; being nearly double the usual di- 
mensions. Three of them are remarkable for their curved tails, a 
feature here first observed. (Plate XXIV, Nos. 2, 3 and 4.) One 
of the smallest has the tail turned back by the side of the body. 
(Plate XXIV, No. 4.) These curved figures have another pe- 
culiarity in the obtuseness of the extremity ; the end being round 
and flat, instead of a sharp point, as in most other similar mounds. 
While these have a width of about four feet at the end, others 
gradually diminish in height and breadth so that it is almost im- 
possible, as before observed, to determine the precise point of 
termination. One has a rectangular bend at the extremity of the 
tail, and in each there is a change of direction in passing from the 
body to the tail/' (Antig. Wis. pp. 30-31.) 

Lapham's plate of this group is reproduced by Rev. S. D. Peet 
(Preh. Am., Vol. 2, p. 256), but with some small errors and omis- 
sions. The plate also, whether by intention or accident, is re- 
versed. The effigies referred to by Lapham as "lizards" are con- 
sidered by present-day archeologists as being very probably in- 
tended to represent some member of the cat family and are known 
for convenience of description as the "panther" type of mounds. 
The "excavation" mentioned by him is one of a rare and sparsely 
distributed class of effigy earthworks now known as intaglios. Of 
these he located examples also at Milwaukee (Indian Prairie, and 
Forest Home Cemetery groups), at Theresa, and at Fort Atkinson. 
Of these only the specimen at Fort Atkinson still remains. No 
others have since been located. 

Lapham's survey of the "School Section" group was made in 
May, 1850. It shows the thirteen mounds comprising it to have 
been located along the top of a narrow densely wooded ridge or 
plateau having a general north and south direction and being 
bounded on either side by lower oak-overgrown lands, beyond 
which were marshes. The road to Pewaukee crossed the lower 
extremity of the ridge, passing between the several most southern 
mounds of the group. Here, on the west side of the road, was a 
log cabin surrounded by some cultivated fields. The intaglio effigy 
lay near the center of the group. The survey of this group, sit- 
uated as it was in a rather dense forest, must have been a matter 
of considerable difficulty and Wisconsin students are indebted to 




School Section Group 

Pewaukee Township 

Plate 3 



Waukesha County Northern Townships 55 

Lapham for his interest and labor in preserving a plat and other 
information concerning its features. 

Pewaukee Creek and Fox River 

18. Stewart Mounds. These are on the old R. A. "Stewart farm 
(E^, SW*4, Sec. 22). The most northerly mound was of the 
"turtle" type. Its tail was short. Its head was directed toward 
the southwest. The pioneer trail to Pewaukee passed by it, and 
an abandoned beaver dam crossed Pewaukee creek a short dis- 
tance to the north of it. A short distance to the south of the 
mound above described, on the opposite side of the stream, was a 
conical mound. This was plowed down by Mr. I. N. Stewart in 
his boyhood. In so doing he disturbed a quantity of burned corn- 
cobs and sticks, probably the remains of a provision cache which 
had been constructed there by later Indians. 

Dr. Increase A. Lapham mentions that a "lizard" mound was 
located on the road in the SW*4 Section 22. It was nearly de- 
stroyed at the time of the publication of his note concerning it. 
(Antiq. of Wis., p. 30.) It evidently belonged to the above group. 
Miss Mary E. Stewart states that in her girlhood a considerable 
number of Potawatomi Indians camped on the farm. 

19. Junction Mound. These mounds are located by Mr. I. N. 
Stewart, in a communication addressed to Mr. Charles E. Brown, 
August 6, 1906. All were situated north of the junction of the 
Waukesha to Pewaukee, the Milwaukee and the U. S. Military 
roads. This junction point is just north of the Waukesha city 
limits. 

Two conical mounds were on land now, or until recently, 
owned by Mr. C. N. Taylor (SE^ Sec. 26). These were early 
plowed over and reduced to the level of the surrounding land. An 
oval mound was situated on the opposite (east) side of the Wau- 
kesha road (SWJ4 Sec. 26). It was not very prominent." A 
conical mound was located to the south of this, on the south side 
of the road to Milwaukee, in the southwest corner of the same 
section. This mound was well constructed and prominent. Both 
were on land belonging to Mr. J. J. Dixon. The Fox river is 
about one-half mile distant from these earthworks. About a 
quarter of a mile to the northeast is a large marsh. 

Lapham states that at the crossing of the old Madison road, in 
the SW^4 of Section 26, were "three conical mounds in front of 



56 Wisconsin Archeologist 

four lizard mounds." (p. 30.) Of these he gives a plat. (Fig. 
9.) This shows also two oval mounds directly east of the first 
"lizard" mound. 

20. Burke Burial. Several years before 1908 a burial was dis- 
turbed in a sand pit located on the property of William Burke 
and located a few rods west of his house. With this burial there 
were found several flint points, two stone celts and two copper 
spear points. These were disposed of to Mr. W. C. Ward, a then 
well known Waukesha collector. The grave was a shallow one, 
being only a few feet beneath the surface. The bones were care- 
fully removed, the skull being in good but the bones in poor con- 
dition. The burial appears to have been flexed. Mr. Burke re- 
ported to Mr. Stanley G. Haskins (1908) that a conical mound 
was formerly located at a distance of about 40 rods east of his 
house. This he excavated but without finding any human or other 
remains. 

The Burke place is in the NE*4 of Section 26, on the west side 
of the Fox river. 

21. Junction Camp Site. A former Indian camp site is in- 
dicated at the place known as "Becks Mill," at the junction of 
Pewaukee creek, the outlet of Pewaukee lake, with the Fox river. 
This place, also in the NE*4 of Section 26, is less than one-fourth 
mile southeast of the Burke place, and about iy 2 miles northeast 
of Waukesha. The usual surface indications of an Indian camp 
site are scattered over this field. Mr. Charles G. Schoewe, who 
reported this site to the Society, April 7, 1922, has a number of 
flint points which he collected here. Other collectors have also 
found flint points and a few scrapers and perforators here. 

22. Waukesha Road Mounds. (NE}4 Section 27.) There 
were three mounds in this group, all being situated at the side of 
the Waukesha to Pewaukee road, which for many years angled 
around them. In recent years, all were destroyed in straightening 
it. The most northerly was a mound of the familiar "turtle" type. 
Its head was pointed northwest, in the direction of the highway. 
In front of it was a slight declivity. Southeast of this mound 
was another of the same type. It was headed in a southwesterly 
direction. Just below it was a conical mound. All of these earth- 
works w r ere on the M. S. Hodgson farm. 



Waukesha County Northern Townships 57 

Pewaukee creek was a short distance north of these earthworks. 

23. Lapham Mounds. Lapham mentions that on the NW*4 
of Sec. 26 were some conical mounds and one of the "lizard" 
shape. They were at the foot of a hill that borders Pewaukee 
creek, (p. 30.) 

BROOKFIELD TOWNSHIP 

There are no lakes in this township. The Fox (Pishtaka) river 
flows through the western sections from the north town line, leav- 
ing it on the western town line in Section 19. Here Poplar creek 
flowing northward from the south line unites with it. In the north- 
east corner of the township a tributary stream flows northward to 
the Menomonee river. From near the central part of the town- 
ship another creek flows in a general southeasterly direction 
through Elm Grove and into Milwaukee county. 

1. Brookfield Junction Camp Site. A camp site is indicated on 
the Siddle and Barber farm and several smaller farms adjoining 
it on the west, north of the C, M. & St. P. R. R. tracks at Brook- 
field Junction (NJ^ Sec. 17). These lie east of the Fox river. 
Here the usual Indian camp refuse is found. A large number of 
flint arrow and spear points have been collected here according to 
Mr. D. R. Hull of this place (1903). 

2. Showerman Mounds. A group of mounds formerly ex- 
tended diagonally across the C. Rowe and Wm. Turner farms, in 
the SW>4 of the SE}4 of Section 17. These were about one- 
half mile south of Brookfield Junction on a portion of the old 
Showerman farm. These were first visited by the Messrs. O. L. 
Hollister, R. L. Porter and C. E. Brown, in September, 1903, at 
the suggestion of Mrs. E. A. Showerman. The mounds were 
situated on a side hill overlooking a valley through which a small 
spring brook ran in a westerly direction to the Fox river. All 
were in fields that had been long under cultivation. The general 
direction of the line of mounds was northeast and southwest. Of 
the twelve mounds eleven were conical or round and one an oval 
mound. They were from 45 to 180 feet apart. The conical 
mounds were from 25 to 35 feet in diameter. The oval mound 
measured 25x33 feet. None were over three feet high. The coni- 
cal mound at the western end of the line was within 150 feet of the 
creek bank. In about the year 1887, Professor Grant Showerman, 



58 Wisconsin Archaeologist 

then a boy, dug into one of the mounds encountering, at its base, 
human bones, probably a bone reburial. Other mounds were ex- 
cavated afterwards by other persons, nothing but masses of 
bones and pieces of charcoal and burned earth being found in any 
of them. At this time most of these mounds are probably 
obliterated or nearly so. On the hillside among the mounds a 
former camp site is indicated. Hearthstones are strewn about in 
many places as also are flint chips and flakes. A pebble hammer- 
stone and several flint points were found. 

3. Fox River Mound. On the A. Mitchell farm, on the west 
side of the Fox river (SE^4 of the SE*4 of Sec. 18), on the north 
and south road leading from Blodgett to Lannon, there was a 
single conical mound. It was on top of a ridge about one- fourth 
mile west of the river. It was originally about 25 feet in diameter 
and about 2 feet high. All but 6 feet of it had been destroyed in 
the grading of the highway in about the year 1886. No bones or 
implements were known to have been encountered during its 
destruction. 

4. Fox River Camp Site. This was located on the Lauren 
Barker and E. Lee farms on the west side of the Fox (\Vy 2 of 'the 
Wy 2 of Sec. 17). When Mr. Barker located here in 1843 a few 
Menomonee Indians were camping 'on this place. In the cul- 
tivation of this land a considerable' number of flint implements, 
hammer stones, grooved axes, and fragments of pottery vessels 
were found. We last visited this site in 1903. 

5. Bolster Burials. In the year 1897 ten Indian skeletons were 
disinterred in removing gravel from a knoll on the farm of John 
Bolster (NWJ4 Sec. 22). The bones were in good condition 
but the farmers strewed them over the road with the gravel. A 
number of fine implements were found with the burials. Mr. F. 
L. Phillips, of Milwaukee, purchased these from Mr. Bolster. Of 
these he furnished the following list : 

Two black hornstone spear points, 7 and 6^g inches in length. 

Quartzite knife, 5^ inches long. 

Copper awl, 5^ inches long, three-eighths of an inch square at 
the middle. 

Copper spear point, 8 inches long (lost while in Mr. Bolster's 
possession). 

Grooved stone axe, about 6 inches long, weight about 3 pounds. 



Waukesha County Northern Townships 59 

Greenstone pointed implement, use unknown. 

Ten flint arrow and spear points, from 1 to 5 l / 2 inches long. 

Other burials are reported to have since (1903) been disturbed 
here. 

This place is but a short distance east of the large tamarack 
swamp which extends from here to Blodgett. It is about \ l / 2 miles 
east of Brookfield. 

6. Reinders Burials. Indian burials have also been disturbed in 
removing gravel from a knoll on the Henry Reinder's farm, in the 
SW>4 of the NW*4 of Section 27, on the road from Blodgett 
to Elm Grove. Some were disinterred in 1897. This knoll is 
located about 400 feet southeast of the farm house, and not far 
from the large swamp mentioned in the previous paragraph. A 
camp site is indicated in the cultivated fields on this farm. Here 
flint rejectage and some flint points have been gathered. 

6a. Swamp Camp Site. On the A. Bencke farm, in the NE^4 
of Section 29, at the foot of a hill, there is a fine spring which the 
early Potawatomi Indians visited and about which they are re- 
ported to have camped. This hill is on the northern edge of the 
tamarack swamp. 

* 

7. Elm Grove Burials. In about the year 1902 several human 
skeletons and some Indian implements were exhumed from a 
gravel knoll on the farm of John Gushing about one-half mile 
north of Elm Grove, in the NW^4 of Section 24. No further 
particulars concerning these could be obtained. Mr. Milton B. 
Potter, Wauwatosa, reported this discovery to the Society in 1903. 

8. Butler Camp Site. Indications of a camp site or sites are 
v found on the banks of a creek tributary to the Menomonee river 
at a distance of less than a mile west of Butler. Here some flint 
points, hammer stones and celts have been collected in past years. 



60 Wisconsin Archeologist 



ARCHEOLOGICAL MEETINGS AND PUBLICATIONS 

Meetings 

At the meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, held in the 
trustee hall of the Milwaukee Public Museum, on Monday evening, 
May 15, 1922, Mrs. J. W. Tylor, instructor in the Home Economics de- 
partment of the University of Wisconsin, delivered a lecture on "The 
Art Motives of the North American Indians," which she illustrated with 
colored and other drawings, and with specimens of Indian decorative 
art applied in modern weaving and design. Forty-five members and 
visitors were present. Dr. E. J. W. Notz presided. Exhibits of Indian 
archeological and ethnological specimens were made by the Messrs. 
C. G. Schoewe, Dr. Notz and Rudolph Boettger. 

President L. R. Whitney conducted the meeting of the Society held 
at Milwaukee on October 16th. Dr. N. W. Jipson, Chicago, delivered 
a lecture on "The Spirituality of the North American Indian." Sixty- 
five members and visitors were in attendance. Secretary Brown made 
an announcement of the field work conducted during the nummer, of the 
preservation program which was being carried out, and of other mat- 
ters of interest to the members. Eight members of the Winnebago 
County Society were present. President O. L. Stinson, who was one 
of these, at the request of the presiding officer made a report on the 
recent meetings and undertakings of his organization. Secretary 
Arthur P. Kannenberg also spoke briefly of recent archeological dis- 
coveries in Winnebago county. At the close of the meeting interesting 
exhibits were made by the Messrs. William Haertel, R. N. Buckstaff, 
E. F. Richter and A. P. Kannenberg. 

A meeting of the Society held on November 20th was presided over 
by Vice President Dr. E. J. W. Notz. Thirty-five members and visitors 
were present. Mr. Alanson Skinner gave an interesting illustrated 
lecture on "The Sauk Indians," whom he had visited at their present 
place of residence in Oklahoma during the summer. This lecture was 
afterward discussed by the Messrs. Notz, C. E. Brown and other mem- 
bers. At the close of the meeting exhibits of specimens were made by 
the Messrs. Rudolph Boettger, William Haertel, Dr, Notz and C. G. 
Schoewe. 

Mr. Willoughby M. Babcock, curator of the museum of the Minnesota 
Historical Society, St. Paul, was the speaker at the December 21st 
meeting. His address on "Indian Affairs at Fort Snelling, 1819-1840," 
which was illustrated by a fine series of lantern slides, was much ap- 
preciated by the fifty-five members and visitors present. Various mem- 
bers and visitors took part in the discussion which followed his lecture. 
Exhibits of specimens were made by the Messrs. W. H. Vogel, Paul 



Waukesha, County Northern Townships 61 

Joers, A. Sohrweide, Jr., and George Marsh. President Whitiney oc- 
cupied the chair. 

At the meeting held on January 15, 1923, Mr. George A. West de- 
livered an interesting lecture on "Stonehenge and the Mounds of Salis- 
bury Plain," which ancient stone and earthworks he had visited dur- 
ing the summer. He told of their known history, and of their preserva- 
tion by the nation. He illustrated his address with interesting stereop- 
ticon slides made from photographs and drawings made by himself. 
Professor A. V. Smith followed the speaker with a brief description of 
the ancient remains at Avebury, England. Messrs. Alanson Skinner, 
Dr. Barrett and others participated in the discussion which followed the 
lecture. Secretary Brown presented a report on the business con- 
ducted by the Executive Board. Seventy-two members and visitors 
were present. Mr. Sohrweide and Mr. Joers made interesting exhibits. 

There have been admitted as annual members of the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society by action of the directors, since the May, 1922, 
meeting: 

B. A. Benson, Wausau Mrs. George Silverwood, Edgerton 
A. E. Hollister, Toman Mrs. M. A. Brugger, Fond du Lac 
R. M. Dessereau, Antigo Benjamin Nussbaum, Forest, 

H. C. Schemmel, Beaver Dam Illinois 

George Overton, Buttes des Morts T. A. Hendricks, Indianapolis, 

Dr. H. Eigenberger, Sheboygan Indiana 

S. W. Faville, Lake Mills M. C. Richter, Milwaukee 

J. A. H. Johnson, Chetek H. R. King, Milwaukee 

Rev. J. H. McManus, Sextonville Barney Wilke, Milwaukee 

C. G. Weyl, Fountain City Karl Dunke, Milwaukee 
Anton Sohrweide, Jr., Watertown A. C. Windau, Milwaukee 

Mrs. J. H. Tylor, Madison, was elected an honorary member. Through 
the deaths during the spring and winter of the year of George M. 
Brugger, Fond du Lac, John A. Hazelwood, Milwaukee, and Dr. N. P. 
Hulst, Milwaukee, the Society has lost three active and interested 
members. 

Publications 

Lewis H. Morgan Chapter of the New York State Archeological 
Association, Rochester, N. Y., has published a report by Frederick 
Houghton, on "The Archeology of Genesee County." This interesting 
publication is illustrated with twenty-one plates of the bone and antler 
awls, needles, points, harpoons, flakes and combs; earthenware por- 
trait and other pipes, shell pendants, gorget, beads, and maskettes; 
stone tube, birdstone, gorgets ,banner stone, maskettes, beads and 
pendants, and brass rings, crosses and medals, and other specimens 
obtained from Seneca and Algonkian sites in this country. 



isconsm Arcfieologist 



"The Archeological History of New York," by Arthur C. Parker, 
and published by the New York State Museum, is a work which every 
American archeologist should endeavor to add to his library. "It has 
been written with a dual obligation in mind an obligation to science 
and the interests of scientific men, and also to the much larger body of 
amateur archeologists and collectors. Archeology owes much to the 
local collector who has gathered his specimens with the best light that 
he had. Much more might have been accomplished if a manual of this 
kind had been prepared many years ago. This bulletin, therefore, is 
intended as a general work explaining the field of archeology as it 
exists in this state." The several sections of this publication are de- 
voted to the "Origin of Material Culture and the Distribution of the 
Various Races of Men," "The Aboriginal Occupation of New York," 
"Evidences of Various Occupations," "Certain Type Sites Intensively 
Explored," "Notes on Certain Archeological Subjects" and "Archeologi- 
cal Localities in the State of New York." It has numerous illustrations. 

"The Hopewell Mound Group of Ohio," by Warren K. Moorehead, 
published by the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. Illus- 
trated by 48 plates and 68 text figures. In the preface Professor Moore- 
head explains that the fieldwork upon which this report is 'based was 
undertaken by himself in 1891 when field assistant for Ohio under Dr. 
Frederick W. Putnam, then chief of Department M. of Anthropology 
of the Worlds Columbian Exposition, Chicago. "Professor Putnam 
expected to write the report of these explorations, but failed to do. so; 
and Dr. Dorsey made some preparation toward publication." After 
twenty-nine years, through the courtesy of the trustees of the Museum, 
Professor Moorehead has himself done this. 

The Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology of Harvard Uni- 
versity has issued an interesting publication, on the "Indian Tribes of 
Eastern Peru." William C. Farabee is the author. 

The July to September issues of The Wisconsin Conservationist con- 
tains, among other articles, some on "Groups of Indian Mounds," 
"Indian Names of the Madison Lakes," "Mounds of Sauk County," 
"The Earthmaker" and "Winnebago Legends." 

The first issue of The Wisconsin Magazine, which is soon to make its 
appearance, will offer, among numerous other articles of exceptional 
interest, one on "Wisconsin Indian Earthworks." This will be illus- 
trated by a number of cuts. This magazine is being published at Madi- 
son by Mr. Hardy Steeholm, a former member of the faculty of the 
Extension Division of the University of Wisconsin. 

The Bureau of American Ethnology has recently issued several new 
bulletins of interest to anthropologists. "Early History of the Creek 
Indians and Their Neighbors," by John R. Swanton; "Northern Ute 
Music," by Frances Densmore, and "Archeological Investigations," 
(cave explorations, etc.), by Gerard Fowke. 



IVaukesha County Northern Townships 63 

The Second Biennial Report of the State Historian of the State of 
Wyoming, 1921-23, contains a report on the numerous additions of In- 
dian material to the state museum. Among the papers printed in this 
is a collection of "Legends of Wyoming Indians," by Mrs. M. B. Nash, 
who spent several years among them as a missionary. 

The Ohio Archeological and Historical Quarterly, October, 1922, con- 
tains an illustrated report covering 161 pages, by Dr. William C. Mills 
on the "Exploration of the Mound City Group," of Ross county, Ohio. 
The results of this investigation were rich in copper and other inter- 
esting aboriginal artifacts. This paper has also appeared in separate 
form. 

To the Michigan History Magazine, Volume VI, 1922, George R. 
Fox, director of the Warren Foundation, at Three Oaks, has contributed 
a fine paper entitled "What About Michigan Archeology," in which he 
summarizes the results of archeological investiagtion in our sister 
state during the past fifty years, prints a list of the literature on Michi- 
gan archeology, and at the close of which he strongly urges the organ- 
ization of a state archeological survey and of a state archeological 
society to continue this very important work. 

"Julien Dubuque, His Life and Adventures," is the title of a pamphlet 
recently written by Richard Herrman, and issued by the Herrman 
Museum of Natural History, Dubuque. 

"The Origin of the Cahokia Mounds," is the title of an illustrated 
bulletin issued by the Illinois State Museum, Springfield, Dr. A. R. 
Crook being the author. 

An article on "Aztalan Mound Park," by Charles E. Brown, appears 
in the November, 1922, issue of the Wisconsin Club Woman. It gives 
a brief history of the attempts of the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
and other state organizations to secure the preservation in a state park 
of the site of this famous Wisconsin Indian earthwork enclosure and 
its remaining outworks. This has been partly accomplished. 

In January, 1922, the Wisconsin Archeological Society began the 
publication of a new series of bulletins. Members and organizations 
desiring to secure sets or to fill vacancies in their sets of any of the 
twenty volumes of the old series are requested to correspond with 
Secretary Brown. The number of copies of some issues is now very 
limited. 

Publications of the Nebraska Historical Society, Volume XIX, Lincoln, 
edited by Albert Watkins, contains papers on "Incidents of the Indian 
Outbreak of 1864," by James Green; "The Omaha Indians Forty Years 
Ago," by Jacob Vore, Agent; "Clan Organization of the Winnebago," 
by Oliver Lamere, and "Some Indian Place Names in Nebraska," by 
M. A. Gllmore. 



64 Wisconsin Archeologist 



Year Book of the Public Museum, Milwaukee, 1921, contains papers on 
"Archeological Work of the Museum," by Alanson Skinner, and "Col- 
lecting Among the Blackfoot Indians," by ?. A. Barrett, both interest- 
ing and well illustrated. 

In the July-September issue of the American Anthropologist, papers 
of special interest are "Contributions to Hopi History," by J. Walter 
Fewkes, Frank Hamilton Gushing and Elsie C. Parsons; "The Medicine 
Wheel," by George Bird Grinnell, and "Medicine Songs of George 
Farmer," by Albert B. Reagan. 

In The Oologist, June 1, 1922, Dr. N. W. Jipson, Chicago, has pub- 
lished a paper on "Bird Lore and Bird Songs of the North American 
Indian." Separates of this interesting paper can be obtained from the 
author. 

"Prairie Smoke," a collection of the lore of the prairies, is a small 
but interesting pamphlet by Melvin R. Gilmore, Bismarck, North 
Dakota. 

The Journal of the New York Botanical Garden, February, 1922, con- 
tains an article on "Wild Pumpkins," by John K. Small, which should 
interest ethno-botanists. 



teconstn 



April 1923 

NEW SERIES 



. 2 



WAUKESHA COUNTY 

SOUTHERN TOWNSHIPS 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE 

WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

MILWAUKEE 



2SHiacon*m glrcfjeologicai 



Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities. 



OFFICERS 

PRESIDENT 

Alanson Skinner 



Dr. E. J. W. Notz 
W. H. Vogel 
A. T. Newman 



VICE-PRESIDENTS 

Dr. S. A. Barrett 
Dr. F. C. Rogers 



Mrs. E. H. Van Ostram 
H. H. Smith 
C. G. Schoewe 



Dr. Geo. L. Collie 
A. P. Kannenberg 
Robert P. Ferry 



DIRECTORS 

H. E. Cole 
E. F. Richter 



Mrs. H. A. Main 
Mrs. H. E. Koerner 
Joseph Ringeisen, Jr. 



TREASURER 

Dr. William H. Brown 



SECRETARY 

Charles Edward Brown 



COMMITTEES 

STATE SURVEY H. E. Cole, Dr. A. Gerend, Geo. R. Fox, DP. W. G. 
McLachlan, Rev. F. S. Dayton, and Executive Board. 

MOUND PRESERVATION Dr. F. C. Rogers, Dr. John J. D. Mack, 
Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, W. C. English, Louise P. Kellogg, Mrs. 
Angie K. Main, Dr. M. E. Diemer, C. T. Olen, O. W. Malmgren, Mrs. 
F. R. Melcher, Rudolph Kuehne, W. A. Adams, R. S. Van Handel, 
and Vetal Winn. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. George L. Collie, Frank G. Logan, Mrs. 
Bessie E. Koerner, E. P. Hamilton, Mrs. H. A. Olson, Dr. Orin 
Thompson, Huron H. Smith, C. J. Koehn, Geo. Wright, D. A. 
Whelan and R. M. Dessereau. 

MEMBERSHIP Dr. H. L. Tilsner, William Haertel, G. R. Zllllsch, 
Rev. M. Staehling, Dr. W. H. Brown, Arthur Gerth, Dr. A. F. Heis- 
ing, P. J. Zuegge, Rev. Christ. Hjermstadt, Mrs. Ellen Butterfield, 
Rev. J. H. McManus, and E. J. Gerrits. 

JUNIOR BRANCH F. C. Paatsch, Rud. Boettger and Paul Joers. 

MAN MOUND PARK W. W. Gilman, Miss Emma Richmond and Prof. 
L. B. Wolfenson. 

AZTALAN MOUND PARK R. P. Ferry, C. E. Brown, Dr. S. A. Barrett. 
Mrs. H. A. Main, David Atwood and Dr. John J. D. Mack. 

PUBLICITY A. O. Barton, Ethel T. Rockwell, Mary E. Stewart and 
R. K. Coe. 



SESSIONS 

These are held in the Lecture Room in the Library-Museum Build- 
ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 




MEMBERSHIP FEES 
Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $.50 Institutional Members, $1.50 



All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeoloprist" should be addressed to Charles E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison. 
Wisconsin. 



CONTENTS 



Vol. 2, No. 2, New Series 
ARTICLES 

Page 
Waukesha County, Southern Townships. 69 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Facing Page 

Wooden Bowl and Brass Kettle, Potawatomi Grave, Muskego Lake. 69 
Map of Waukesha County, Southern Townships 74 

Plate 

1. Carroll College Group, Waukesha 78 

2. Dewey Group, Vernon Township 88 

3. Big Bend Group, No. 2 92 

4. Linear Mound, Big Bend Group No. 2 94 

Figure Page 

1. Eagle Effigy, Bird Hill, Waukesha.. 73 








Wooden Bowl and Brass Kettle 

From Potaicatomi Grave, Miiskeao Lake 

Milwaukee Public Museum 



ronattt 



Published Quarterly by the Wisconsin Archeologlcal Society 

Vol. 2 MADISON, WIS., April, 1923 No. 2 

New Series 



WAUKESHA COUNTY 

SOUTHERN TOWNSHIPS 

Charles E. Brown 

A report on the archeological history of the eight northern 
townships of Waukesha county was published in the January, 
1923, issue of The Wisconsin Archeologist. That and the 
present report on the archeological features of the eight 
southern townships of the county are based on investigations 
begun by Dr. Increase A. Lapham in 1836 and continued until 
1875, and, since 1901, carried on under the direction of the 
Wisconsin Archeological Society. 

OTTAWA TOWNSHIP 

In this township there are fifteen or more small pond-like 
lakes. The largest of these, School Section lake, is nearly three- 
fourths of a mile long and less than one-half mile wide. The 
Bark river flows across the northwest corner of the township. 
In this township no archeological researches have yet been 
undertaken. Several small camp sites are reported to exist 
on the banks of the Bark and a few flint implements have been 
collected on the shores of some of the small lakes. A trail 
ran from the south in a northeasterly direction across Sec- 
tions 33, 27, 23, and 13, and into Genesee township. 

GENESEE TOWNSHIP 

1. Genesee Lake Burial. There are in this township several 
small lakes, ponds and streams tributary to the Fox (Pishtaka) 
river. The township appears to have produced but few 
Indian artifacts, at least but few of these have found their way 



70 Wisconsin Archeologist 

into collections. In 1914, Mr. George Boundey reported to the 
Society that a large white flint spearpoint, in his possession 
had been found with an Indian burial disinterred at Genesee. 

2. Rees Camp Site. In the fifties, or before, a few Indians are 
reported to have camped on the D. T. Rees farm, in the N% 
of Section 16, at the source of a creek which flows southward 
to Genesee. This locality is about one mile north of Genesee 
Depot. 

WAUKESHA TOWNSHIP 

1. Waukesha Indian Village. Concerning the Potawatomi 
Indian village which was located at Waukesha (known as Prai- 
rieville in the early days of settlement) there is considerable 
miscellaneous information. "The large village was located 
where Carroll College now stands, and south of it was a brigade 
of huts (wigwams) about 12 feet in height and from 12 
to 20 feet in diameter. They were made of poles, covered 
with bark or skins. This village was a permanent one until 
1837. Some of the "bucks" were constantly making expedi- 
tions north as well as south, but the huts were put up from 
year to year as the first settlers found them, until late in 1837. 
Near this village, called Prairie Village, whence Waukesha took 
its first name, were some noted corn fields, the hills in which 
the maize was planted being plainly and unmistakably dis- 
cernible yet. The reason for this is that the Indian method of 
corn-planting was far different from that in vogue among 
the palefaces.. They made large hills, from 3 to 5 feet across, 
and as near together as convenient, and in them planted the 
corn from year to year. This village extended for about a 
mile along the ridge."* 

The name of the Indian village where Waukesha now stands 
was Tehee gas cou tak, burnt or fire land. Prairie country 
began here, and, according to the Potawatomie, it was much 
frequented by prairie fires. The springs at Waukesha were 
Tah kip nee peesh (takih nibish), spring water. 

"A, somewhat noted Pottawattamie chief, Leatherstrap, with 
a large number of his people were found by the first settlers 
living near the site of the village of Waukesha, where he 
afterwards died, and was buried with his two wives on the 
handsome grounds now owned by Morris D. Cutler (present 



West. Hist. Co., Hist. Waukesha Co., 377-81, 382-83. 



Waukesha County Southern Toivnships 71 

Cutler Park)."* The local leader, not chief, according to 
M. D. Cutler, was "Wau-tsha" (or Wauk-tsha). He was tall 
and athletic, proud in his bearing, dignified and friendly. His 
clothing and ornaments were richly decorated skins, strings 
of beads and shells, and tufts of feathers. Wagosh is the 
Potawatomi name for fox. Wauk tsha and Leatherstrap were 
probably two names for the same person. 

Extensive planting grounds were connected with the Wau- 
kesha Indian village. Lapham says: "Much of the ground 
about Waukesha was, in 1836, covered with Indian corn hills, 
or remains of the recent culture of maize. " :; On the campus 
of Carroll College a small plot of these corn hills is preserved. 

"A trail from Pewaukee crossed the river at what is now Hadfield's 
quarry, then came down to where the White Rock spring is located. 
This spring, called by the white men and Indians the "Salt Lick", was 
a great place for game. After leaving it the trail came just north 
of Hickory Grove, then to where the Congregational church now 
stands, and a little south of Mineral Rock spring, then recrossed the 
river near Bethesda spring, going to the Industrial school, and so on 
to Mukwonago."* 

The abundance of fine water undoubtedly greatly influenced 
the Indians in establishing their village and camps here. Some 
of the springs were regarded as sacred or as possessing healing 
virtues. In the grading of streets and erection of buildings 
in Waukesha Indian burials have been disturbed. On the 
Henry Bryant property, adjoining the Carroll College campus, 
two fragmentary skulls were unearthed in grading the land. 
The Waukesha village is said to have been capable of putting 
into the field 400 warriors. Dr. I. A. Lapham says: "The town 
of Waukesha stands on a slightly undulating plain, surrounded 
by hills, forming a fine amphitheatre, which, in ancient times, 
was doubtless crowded, as it is now, with a numerous popu- 
lation."* 

Andrew J. Vieau, a brother of Solomon Juneau, the Mil- 
waukee trader, was the first to open a trading post at Wau- 
kesha. In 1837 he sold his stock to Juneau. He supplied the 
local Indians with cloth, jewelry, axes and hoes, knives, guns 
and powder and other articles which they required. Juneau 's 
cabin is said to have been located where St. Josephs Catholic 
church now stands.* 



* Snyder & Van Vechten, Atlas of Wis., 245. 

* Antiq. Wis., 27. 

* Hist. Wauk. Co., 468, 496. 



72 Wisconsin Archeologist 

In 1837 the Waukesha Indians began to remove to their new 
reservation in Kansas. All were gone by the autumn of the 
year 1838. 

Dr. Lapham visited the Indian earthworks at Waukesha, on 
May 17, 1850. In his manuscript notes he says : ' ' Walked out 
this morning with Mr. Barstow to view the ancient works on 
the hills bordering the prairie. Found them occupying almost 
every prominent point on -the east side of the river (did not 
go to the west side). Took their bearings from the steeple 
of the court house which stands near the "Turtle Mound," 
surveyed by me in 1836. 

He mentions examining "a number of arrow heads", the 
collection of a Mr. Benjamin Eure, a colored man. One speci- 
men, of "pure flint," he found "very beautiful." He was 
struck with its resemblance in outline to the turtle mounds. 

Waukesha Mounds 

2. Harding Mounds. East of the city limits of Waukesha, 
near the George Harding residence. Dr. Lapham found a group 
of three mounds, consisting of two panther mounds with a 
single linear mound between them. These mounds he illustrates 
in his Plate XVIII, but does not describe. They were located 
on top of and near the edge of a wooded bluff overlooking 
the Waukesha prairie. The heads of the two effigies were 
directed to the south. 

3. Bird Hill Mounds. Dr. Laphaim says of this mound group : 
"Plate XX represents a group of structures occupying the 
very high hill a little east of the town. It consists of two 
round, four oblong, one turtle, and one bird-shaped mound. 
Of the last an enlarged view is presented in Plate XXII. No. 
1, with its dimensions. Its position is peculiar, on a steep 
hillside, with its head downwards. The general outline of 
the figure, and the shape of the head and beak, leave no doubt 
that a bird was intended to be represented ; but whether an 
eagle, a hawk, or any particular bird, must be left entirely 
to conjecture." Lapham 's survey of this fine group was 
made in May, 1850. The hill to which he or others gave the 
name of "Bird Hill" because of the presence of the large 
bird effigy is now occupied by the Resthaven sanitarium. His 
plat of this group shows that in 1850, the western p 




Waukesha County Southern Townships 73 



o" 

/* 



Figure 1 

of this hill was under cultivation, the remainder being covered 
with forest trees. In this cultivated field was the panther mound, 
which he reports as a turtle effigy. Its head was directed 
to the southeast. According to the scale of his plat its length 
was slightly less than 100 feet. In the woods behind (east of) 
this effigy w r ere two round or conical and four oval mounds. 
The bird effigy was locate'd south of these on the side of the 
hill. Its direction was to the southeast. 

Dr. Walter L. Rankin of Carroll College reported to the 
Society in 1906 that a later name for Bird Hill was Hickory 
Grove. In that year only two small conical mounds of this 
once fine group of Indian earthworks remained. 

A remnant of one, an oblong mound (?) remains on the 
hilltop east of the sanitarium, on the east side of Rosemary 
street. At the western base of Bird Hill are two springs, the 
water of which is now being bottled in adjoining bottling 
works. On the top of the hill some of the numerous hickory 
trees from which it took one of its former names, remain. 
A few Indian stone implements have been found on the hill 
and near the springs at its base in years past. 

4. Silurian Spring Effigy. Lapham located a solitary turtle 
effigy on or near the grounds of the Silurian Spring Co., a 
distance of three city blocks south of Resthaven. He gives 
no description of it. 

5. Court House Mounds. Another group of mounds was 
located at the junction of present Main street and East avenue, 
where the Waukesha court house and St. Josephs Catholic 
church are located. All of the mounds appear to have been 
on the west side of East avenue, and two of them in Main 
street. 



74 Wisconsin Archeologist 

Lapham says of these mounds: "Plate XIX represents 
a group of works surveyed in 1836, with the assistance of 
Mr. Wm. T. Culley. At that time the log-house near these 
mounds was the only evidence of civilization in the place ; and 
the works were uninjured by the white man, except that the 
large mound (conical) was made use of for a root-house, or 
potato-hole. The turtle-jmound was then a conspicuous object ; 
and such was its resemblance to that animal, that it was pro- 
nounced a good representation by all who saw it. The mere 
outline of the ground plan, as represented in the plate, fails to 
convey an adequate idea of its resemblance. . 

"On this mound was, at that time, a recent grave, protected by 
pickets driven on opposite sides, so as to cross at the top, as repre- 
sented on the plate. The Indians had but recently left the place, 
and the trail leading from the river to their wigwams ran directly 
over two of the mounds. This turtle was then a very fine specimen 
of the art of mound-building, with its graceful curves, the feet pro- 
jecting back and forward, and the tail, with its gradual slope, so 
acutely pointed that it was impossible to ascertain precisely where 
it terminated. The body was fifty-six feet in length, and the tail two 
hundred and fifty; the height six feet. 

"The ground occupied by this group of works is now (1850) covered 
with buildings. A dwelling-house (Conover) stands upon the body of 
the turtle, and a Catholic church is built upon the tail." 

This turtle effigy has the distinction of being the first effigy 
mound to be described from Wisconsin, Dr. Lapham having 
printed a description of it in the Milwaukee Advertiser, in 
1836. 

His plat of this interesting group shows a quadruped effigy 
and a tapering linear mound situated opposite each other at its 
northern end. A short distance south of these were a short 
straight linear and a small conical mound, also nearly opposite 
each other. Several hundred feet south of these was the 
large conical mound located on the west side of the extremity 
of the tail of the large turtle effigy. About 100 feet west of 
the middle of the tail of the turtle was another short straight 
linear mound. 

He gives the following dimensions of the mounds of this 



Mammal el'l~y Length about 50 feet. 
Tapering linear Length 100 feet. 
Linear Length 60 feet. 



Waukesha- County Southern Townships 75 

Small conical Diameter about 20 feet. 
Large conical Dialmeter 60, height 6 feet. 
Linear Length 66, width 20, height 3 feet. 
Turtle Length 250 feet; distance across body at front 
limbs, 68, at rear 66 feet. 

These mounds were on elevated land at a distance of about 
one city block south of the Fox river bank. 

An examination of gardens and vacant lots along White 
Rock avenue, between this site and the location of the White 
Kock spring, a distance of at least a half mile to the northeast, 
disclosed but little evidence of early Indian camp sites, 
although such evidences must once have existed. Several 
grooved stone axes and celts and a number of flint implements 
have been collected here during the improvement of this 
section of the city. 

6. South Street Mounds. Lapham shows two conical 
mounds to have been located a short distance west of Broad- 
way, between South street and Wisconsin avenue. Dr. Walter 
L. Rankin, in 1906, reported their location to have been "near 
Maynard's livery and the Y. M. C. A. building." 

1. Church Street Mound. A solitary conical mound was 
located, according to Lapham, at a distance of about two city 
blocks west of the South street mounds. Dr. Rankin places 
this location near the southeast corner of Church and South 
streets. 

8. Cutler Mounds. A line of ten conical mounds extended 
across present Cutler Park from near its northeast to its south- 
west corner and on to the adjoining property. Two of the 
mounds in this group [they were on the Cutler property] were 
excavated by Dr. Lapham: "The mound marked a on the map 
(Plate XVIII) was selected for examination; much of the earth 
having been removed by the town authorities, so as materially 
to lessen the labor. At about two feet above the original sur- 
face of the ground, the top of a circular wall or pile of stone, 
about nine feet in diameter, was discovered. It was com- 
posed of loose fragments of white limestone, which exhibited 
evidence of long contact with the earth, by their decayed and 
softened exterior. The wall was interrupted on the west side. 
(See Section, Plate XVIII.) 



76 Wisconsin Archeologist 



"We commenced the exploration by opening a trench three feet 
wide, beginning on the east side of the original mound, deep enough 
to reach through the black and mottled earth of which the mound was 
composed, and to the surface of the yellowish clay subsoil. Continu- 
ing this trench towards the center, we passed the loose stone wall, 
and found the black earth ' suddenly extending down about two 
feet below the natural surface of the ground, and reaching the gravel 
below the yellow clay. Upon this gravel, two feet below the original 
surface, directly under the center of the mound, and surrounded by 
the circular heap of stone, was found a human skeleton, lying on its 
back, with the head towards the west. Stone had also been placed 
at the sides and over the body, forming a rude sort of coffin. The 
bones were very much decayed and only fragments could be obtained. 
The plates of the skull were too far gone to be restored. 

"In the left hand was a pipe of baked clay or pottery, ornamented 
with holes around the bowl, and also a quantity of red paint. In 
the right hand was a smaller pipe, cut from a soft kind of stone. 
They were both very small, and appear to have been articles of 
fancy rather than use. At the head were found many fragments of 
pottery which had been crushed by the weight of the earth; these 
fragments were originally portions of two vessels, which had the form 
represented in Fig. 8. (Vase shaped with straight neck.) They are of 
the same coarse and rude materials as the fragments so frequently 
found on and near the surface in many localities throughout the 
state. The earth immediately over the skeleton was hard and black, 
indicating the action of fire, though no other evidence of this was 
discovered. Fragments of fresh water shells (of the genus Unio) 
were found with the fragments of pottery. No wood was found, nor 
were any vacant places found where it might have decayed. 

"Another mound was opened a short distance west of the first, 
by sinking a shaft in the center five feet in diameter. We soon 
reached burned clay of a yellow or reddish-yellow color, with stones 
almost calcined into quicklime by the intensity of the heat. Much 
charcoal was obtained, showing still the original pores and concentric 
circles of the wood, which appeared to be oak. The bones of a portion 
of the leg of a human being was found; but the remainder of the 
skeleton had evidently been consumed at the time of the interment. 
There had been no excavation below the natural surface of the 
ground in this case. 

"The materials composing these mounds were taken from the 
surface, so that no perceptible excavations were left in their vicinity; 
and the whole body of the tumulus consists of black mould, with 
occasional spots of yellowish clay. The difference between the 
artificial and natural soil was quite apparent. 

"In one of the vases at the head of the skeleton were the remains 
of a shell, apparently the Unio siliquoides, a very common species in 
the rivers and lakes of Wisconsin. These' shells are often used as 
spoons, and this vase probably contained a supply of food for the 
departed while on the journey to the spirit-land." 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 77 

Three conical mounds are permanently preserved in Cutler 
park. The largest of these is 70 feet in diameter at its base and 
9 feet high at its middle. Within 14 feet of it is a second 
mound, 35 feet in diameter and 3^ feet high. A third mound 
is on the opposite side of the large mound, and 34 feet from it 
is a mound 14 feet in diameter, and of about the same elevation 
as the last. These mounds were dedicated to the public at 
a meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Society held at 
Carroll College, on May 26, 1906. A descriptive tablet was 
erected on the largest mound by the Waukesha Women's Club, 
Mrs. W. H. Anderson, president of the club, delivering the 
unveiling address. An account of this meeting is given in 
the Wisconsin Archeologist, Vol. 6, No. 1, October, 1906. A 
neat iron fence now encloses the largest mound. 

9. Carroll College Group. Dr. Lapham figures and briefly 
describes this group of mounds : ' ' The very fine group, half a 
mile south of the town (Plate XXI), fortunately is upon the 
grounds of Carroll College ; and we may, therefore, hope it will 
be forever preserved as a record of the past. The mounds 
form a quasi enclosure, and hence, like many other groups of 
works, have been, by casual observers, called a fort. If we 
were not well acquainted with works of defence in Ohio and 
elsewhere, which show that the mound-builders were consider- 
ably advanced in military arts, we might suppose this was 
intended for a rude fortification; but we can only regard it 
as an accidental arrangement, and not designed for any such 
purpose." 

His plat of this group shows a total of twelve mounds sur- 
rounding the then, in 1850, single college building, with a trail 
crossing the campus and passing through the group from the 
southwest to the northeast. Of the twelve mounds one was a 
bird effigy, three were panther-type eifigies and one a turtle 
effigy. There were also four straight linear or embankment 
shaped mounds and two conical mounds. In 1906, Dr. Rankin 
reported to the Society that: "Six of these are gone [the 
turtle, one panther, the bird, two linear and one conical moundj 
but not through any fault of the college authorities. They 
were all outside our college lot ; two of them immediately 
south, probably on the line of College Avenue, two of them 
further south on the site of residences, one northeast and one 



78 Wisconsin Archeologist 

west of our grounds." One effigy mound was in that year 
partly destroyed "to make way for the Elizabeth Voorhees 
dormitory, but the tail is left. We excavated the body 
. . . . with striking results. Two skeletons were found, 
one apparently of a female near the center of the body and the 
other, with larger bones, about at the head."* No implements 
accompanied these remains which were preserved in the Col- 
lege museum. 

There are on the College campus today five mounds two 
linear mounds in front of the main building, the remnant of the 
mound partly destroyed in the erection of the girl's dormitory, 
a linear mound a short distance from Rankin hall, between the 
edge of a tennis court and the W. College avenue walk, and a 
panther effigy at the western end of the campus whose head 
is missing. This head was destroyed because it extended into 
Center street. The plot of Indian corn hills located at the 
northern edge of the campus is no longer very definite. 

10. Main Street Mounds. Lapham figures a group of three 
mounds, a straight linear, a turtle effigy and a conical mound, 
as located in 1850 south of the Fox river, at about the present 
intersection of Main street and West avenue. He gives no 
description of it, These mounds were long ajro destroyed. 

11. Charles Street Mounds. Dr. Lapham also locates a 
rather scattered group of five conical mounds and a single 
straight linear mound immediately north of the Carroll College 
grounds. These Dr. Rankin reported as having been located 
between Charles and James streets. No trace of them remained 
in 1906. 

12. Industrial School Mound. On the south side of the Fox 
river, on the playground park of the Wisconsin Industrial 
School for Boys there is what appears to be a single conical 
mound. This is located across the street from' the dormitory 
buildings and at a distance of about 100 feet northwest of the 
corner of College avenue and state streets. Its presence does 
not appear to have been previously reported. This mound is 
about 40 feet in diameter and only about 1% feet high at its 
middle. It is situated on level land and is not very conspicu- 
ous. Its distance from the river bank is about 200 feet. 

Along the river shore between this location is the famous 
Bethesda spring and the Hauk Mineral spring. On Wisconsin 



* 6 Wis. Archeo., No. 1, p. 13. 




Carroll College Group 

Waukesha 

Plate 1 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 79 

avenue beyond it the Potawatomi camped in early days. The 
Indian trail, which crossed the Fox river near the Bethesda 
spring, ran across the Industrial School grounds. 

13. Hanford Mounds. These mounds were located on the 
east side of the road from Waukesha to Big Bend, on property 
owned by Mr. E. R. Bauer, of Milwaukee, in the SWi/4 of the 
NW 1 /! of Section 11. This location was on October 28, 1905, 
when measurements of the mounds were taken by Charles E. 
Brown, J. M. Pratt and Rowland Russell, at a distance of 
one-eighth mile south of the Waukesha city limits. Mr. Pratt, 
who lived here in his boyhood, stated that the farm was for- 
merly known as the Hanford Nursery farm. Beginning near 
the road (East Division street) the mounds extended across 
the property in an irregular line, in an easterly direction. That 
nearest the road was a tapering linear mound 100 feet long, 18 
feet wide at its rounded extremity and 3 feet high. Sixty 
feet southeast of it was a conical mound 30 feet in diameter 
and 11/2 feet high at its middle. Nine feet east of it was a 
straight linear mound 100 feet long and 30 feet wide. Its 
elevation was from 3% to 4 feet. Its direction was northeast 
and southwest. Twenty-five feet beyond this mound another 
conical mound had been obliterated. These mounds were in 
1905 in a piece of pasture land sparsely wooded with oak 
trees. An Austrian pine, a hickory and a black cherry tree 
were growing on the eastern end of the straight linear mound. 
Near the house on this place, about one thousand feet east of 
the mounds, Mr. Pratt collected many flint implements when 
a boy. 

14. Forest House Corn Field. There was, according to Dr. 
C. D. Stanhope, of Milwaukee, an Indian corn field near the 
Forest House station, -the first railway station east of Wau- 
kesha. He visited it with his father in the year 1851 or 1852. 

15. North Street Camp Sites. On the north side of the Fox 
river evidences of former Indian camp sites extend from the 
Locust street crossing in a southwesterly direction along the 
river bank for a distance of several city blocks to the fields 
in the rear of the Kenyon Takedown Houses Co. plant. The 
land slopes gradually upward from the marshy river bank to 
North street, which parallels the river. There are as yet but 
few dwellings on the south side of this street. Wherever the 



80 Wisconsin Archeologist 

land has been under cultivation scattered hearth stones, flint 
chips and fragments, occasional broken points and pebble 
hammerstones have been found. In the thirties and forties 
small numbers of Potawatomi occasionally camped here but 
the land was camped upon by Indians at a still earlier date. 

16. North Ridge Camp Sites. From North street a diagonal 
road leading to Pewaukee rises to the crest of the high ridge 
which overlooks the river and affords a fine view of the City 
of Waukesha on the opposite shore. On the ridge crest in 
gardens and plowed fields evidences of former Indian camp 
sites similar to those found on the river bank below occur. 
These extend through Griffin's and Kimball's subdivisions, 
over a portion of the grounds of the "Waukesha Moor Bath Co. 
and southward to the rear of the former Weber's brewery, at 
Whitney place. Here especially numbers of flint implements 
and some stone celts and grooved axes have been found in 
years past. Small numbers of Potawatomi occasionally 
camped on the crest of this ridge in the forties. There were 
then numerous muskrats in the river marsh and these and the 
fish which they caught were their principal articles of food. 

At the southern end of Whitney place Barnard creek, which 
is fed by Siloam, White Rock and other springs, flows in a 
southerly direction into the Fox river. Two enlargements of 
this creek were formerly known as Webers and Barnards 
ponds. 

The creek bed is now being filled in with rubbish in the 
course of city improvements. The road to Waukesha Beach 
(Delafield street) runs up the ridge at this place. On the 
opposite side of the little creek valley the ridge continues, 
overlooking the river. On its crest and on the river bank 
below the Potawatomi also formerly camped. On this ridge 
and on its slopes are many homes of citizens of Waukesha. 
The river, a fine stream, is in places from 150 to over 200 feet 
wide. 

NEW BERLIN TOWNSHIP 

This township has in its bounds only two small lakes or 
ponds (near its southern town line) and no large streams. 
Poplar creek and branches of Root river rise in this town. 

1. Calhoun Mounds. Two small conical mounds, which Dr. 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 81 

C. D. Stanhope remembered to have seen on the J. Elger 
property, south of Calhoun station, in the SE!/4 of Section 3, 
had disappeared through cultivation of the land when visited 
by a party of members of the' Society consisting of Dr. Stan- 
hope, Mr. R. L. Porter, Mr. H. A. Crosby and Mr. C. E. Brown, 
on July 8, 1903. 

2. Poplar Creek Camp Site. The presence of a camp of 
Menomini Indians in the early forties on the hillsides above 
the Poplar creek bottoms (east side of the creek) in Section 
9, was reported to the members of the above mentioned party, 
by Mr. J. Elger, an old resident of Calhoun. This camp con- 
tained at times from 150 to 200 Indians. The use of the site 
was discontinued by them in .the early fifties. There was a 
fine spring here and the surrounding woodlands abounded in 
game and the creek in fish. From a small gravel pit on the 
Frederick Stigler farm at this place (SW 1 /* of the NE% of 
Sec. 9) Mr. Elger and others disinterred Indian bones. 

EAGLE TOWNSHIP 

This township in its natural state is described as being 
"diversified by springs, brooks, marshes, prairie and burr oak 
openings. A chain of bluffs passes through its northern 
part."* 

But little is known concerning its archeological history. 
Some stone celts, axes and flint implements have been collected 
from the shores of Beaver Dam lake, in its northwestern 
corner, and two slate pendants and flint points on the north 
shore of Eagle Spring lake, in its southeastern corner, and other 
stone implements on the banks of Scuppernong creek, which 
flows through the western half of the township from the north- 
east to the southwest. Here some camp sites are indicated by 
the usual debris. 

MUKWONAGO TOWNSHIP 

The Fox (Pishtaka) river flows along the eastern boundary 
of this township, .an enlargement of the river in Sections 13 and 
v 24 being known as Mud or Mukwonago lake. At the south- 
-eastern corner of this township Mukwonago creek connects 
Hewitt and Phantom lakes with the Fox. Spring lake is 
located near the northern boundary of the township. 



*Hist. Wauk. Co. 



82 Wisconsin Archeologist 

1. Mukwonago Village. The village of "Mukwonago, pre- 
vious to its settlement in 1836, was a large and populous Indian 
village. ... of the tribe known as the Potawatomies, 
situated on Mukwonago Creek, not far from its junction with 
the Fox River, and near the border of an extensive forest. The 
inhabitants were generally peaceful and inoffensive. Their 
wigwams were substantially built. Their council house, a 
large building built of poles and covered with the bark of 
trees, in which the chiefs and principal men of the tribe held 
their annual councils, was, in 1836, standing on the north bank 
of Mukwonago Creek, at the south end of the village. The 
valley in which the village was located being very produc- 
tive, they raised corn in great abundance. Col. Childs men- 
tions the village as located here in 1820. The name of the 
village is derived from '"mukwa," bear." 

"The chief of this important Potawatomi village was Wau-be-kee- 
tschuk. He was blind, hence his name. Tauh-pauh-wihs was next in 
rank to him. The Milwaukee trader, Solomon Juneau states that the 
Mukwonago Potawatomi raised as many as 5,000 bushels of corn a 
year. Their principal articles of food were fish, wild rice, muskrats, 
rabbits, prairie fowls, roots, corn and wild fruits. On property 
formerly owned by H. H. Camp they had a race course where they 
raced their ponies. Andrew E. Elmore, an early settler (1836), opened 
a store and traded with them. Sewall Andrews and Henry H. Camp, 
early settlers who arrived at Mukwonago in May, 1836, presented two 
barrels of flour to the Indians for the privilege of erecting a cabin on 
their land. After 1837, when they were removed, the Indians returned 
sometimes to the number of one hundred."* 

Mr. Rolland- L. Porter found them camping along the Fox 
river in this vicinity as late as the years 1856-60. A trail from 
Mukwonago ran to the east of Spring lake in the northern 
part of the township. 

The History of Waukesha county states that the Indian name 
for the Fox river below Mukwonago was Wauk tsha seepe and 
above it Tehee gas cou tak seepe or fire river. Several maps 
of Wisconsin Territory (1835-1839) show the location of an 
Indian village on "Mequanigo creek." One of these shows a 
trail leading southward to Big Foot's Potawatomi village on 
the shores of Lake Geneva. 

2. Avery Cache. In the spring of the year 1909, Mr. Ben S. 
Avery, residing about one mile north of Mukwonago, plowed 

* West. Hist. Co., Hist, of Wauk. Co., 756-57. 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 83 

up a cache or hoard of forty leaf shaped flint blades. These 
were from S 1 /^ to 2y 2 inches in length and from % to l 1 /^ 
inches in width at their widest parts. This discovery was 
reported to the Society by Mr. R. L. Porter on June 2, 1909. 

3. Mud Lake Mounds. Several small groups of mounds 
located on the east shore of Mud lake were first visited by 
members of the Archeological Section of the Wisconsin Natural 
History society, among whom were the Messrs. G. A. West, 
R. L. Porter, L. R. Whitney, 0. L. Hollister and C. E. Brown, 
on October 20, 1901. These mounds Mr. Porter described and 
illustrated with a map, in The Wisconsin Archeologist of 
October, 1902 (v. 2, no. 1, p. 8-13). 

These groups were located on both sides of the Mukwonago- 
Vernon town line, about two miles northeast of Mukwonago. 
The group furthest north consisted of three conical mounds. 
These were a short distance east of the Wisconsin Central R. 
R. track, and the lake shore. Their diameters were 17, 24 and 
15 feet. The highest was 2~y 2 feet high. At a distance of 500 
feet south of these was a second group of four conical mounds. 
These were on the top and near the edge of a high wooded 
ridge. These mounds were 20, 22, 24 and 25 feet in diameter. 
They were from 3 to 4 feet high. All had been disturbed by 
relic hunters and human bones and charcoal found in one of 
them. These groups were located on property belonging to 
Isaac Blood (SE*4 Sec. 13). 

A third group was located on the farm of August Hartwick 
(NEi/4, Sec. 24), in a cultivated field. It consisted of five 
mounds, four of them being in a line, and the fifth at a distance 
of 366 feet west of the last of the line. They were from 25 
to 50 feet in diameter, and the highest about 4 feet high. On 
the H. F. Adams place, adjoining this land on the east, there 
were five conical mounds located in a tract of woodland. Three 
of these were close together at the northern end of the prop- 
erty, and the other two some distance south of these. Four 
of these earthworks were 17, 20, 20 and 25 feet in diameter, and 
the last, an oval mound, measured 14x20 feet. These mounds 
were from 2 to 3 feet high. All had been explored, bone 
re-burials being found in all. Two grooved stone axes were 
obtained from one. 

A series of fireplaces on the Hartwick property were sur- 
rounded by a double circle of boulders. In the central de- 



84 Wisconsin Archeologist 

pression of each was a quantity of ashes, charcoal and burned 
earth. From one of these fireplaces Mr. Porter obtained a 
catlinite pipe, a grooved stone axe, a flint spear point and a 
quantity of broken pottery. 

Two other groups of mounds located by Mr. Porter are in 
Vernon Township. 

The State Land Office map (1836) gives the name of Mud 
or Mukwonago lake as Mick quan e co ick. 

Indications of a former village site were found in the culti- 
vated fields on the shore of Mud lake. Here some flint points, 
stone celts, potsherds polishing stones, whetstones and a 
grooved stone axe have been collected. Some of these speci- 
mens were in Mr.- Porter's collection. Small numbers of 
Potawatomi formerly camped in this locality. 

VERNON TOWNSHIP 

The Pox (Pishtaka) river flows along the western boundary 
and through the lower part of this township. A number of 
creeks flow into it at different points along its course. The 
growth of maple trees along the banks of the river was for- 
merly heavy. 

1. Mud Lake Mounds. These were described by Mr. R. L. 
Porter in an early issue of The Wisconsin Archeologist (v. 2, 
No. 1). They were located on property belonging to Mr. W. 
Spence, a short distance east of the Fox river, near the center 
of the NE14 of Section 19. There is one group of three conical 
mounds, the mounds being 16, 17 and 18 feet in diameter and 
about 3 feet high at the middle. A fourth mile south of these, 
near the river bank, there was another group of three conical 
and an oval mound. The three conicals were 25, 25 and 50 feet 
in diameter. The oval mound had diameters of 40 and 50 
feet, A large tree grew on one of these mounds. 

The State Land map (1836) locates an Indian village on the 
west line of Section 3], south of the mounds. 

2. Welsh Mounds. The presence of two conical mounds on 
the F. W. Welsh farm in the Wy 2 of the NEVi of Section 4, 
near the north line of the township, was reported to Mr. R. L. 
Porter by the owner, on September 14, 1905. This locality is 
about one-half mile east of Vernon. 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 85 

3. Schuster Group. This group of mounds was located by 
Mr. Porter in October, 1906. At that time he visited the 
Schuster farm on the north bank of the Fox river (Ni/> of Sec. 
30) and took measurements of the four mounds located there. 
These consisted of three conical and a linear mound. The 
three conicals were 20, 25 and 26 feet in diameter and 2 feet 
high, and the linear mound 200 feet in length, 18 feet wide and 
2 feet high. The Milk river enters the farm near this place. 

4. Brock Effigies. Two effigy mounds located on the G. 
Brach (Brock) place, in the NEVi of Section 30, were located 
by a field party of members of the Archeological Section of 
the Wisconsin Natural History society, on September 30, 1901. 
In this party were Dr. C. D. Stanhope, O. L. Hollister, R. L. 
Porter, L. R. Whitney, C. E. Brown, W. J. Bennetts and others. 
These mounds were on a strip of woodland extending into the 
Fox river marsh. They were panther effigies but ozie lacked 
the long tail common to this type of earthworks. The mounds 
are almost in line with each other and were separated by a 
distance of 81 feet. One was 140 feet long and 2% feet high, 
the other 45 feet long and 2% feet high. This last mound had 
been excavated but without results. 

5. Smith Cornfield. In 1904, Mr. R. L. Porter reported to 
the Wisconsin Archeological society on the existence of a plot 
of Indian corn hills on the Edward C. Smith farm, in the Wy 2 
of Section 31. The hills were still quite plain and were nu- 
merous. No information concerning the Indian authors of this 
planting ground were then obtainable. This locality is three- 
fourths of a mile southeast of Mukwonago creek. 

6. Hart Village Site. Mr. O. L. Hollister reported to the 
Society in 1904 on indications of a former Indian village site 
on the Frank Hart farm, on the north bank of the Fox river, 
in the NWV 4 of the SEi/4 of Section 20. -On this property 
flint rejectage, hearth stones, potsherds, bits of decomposed 
clam shell valves, animal bones and other debris of an ab- 
original village were to be seen. Numerous flint implements 
and some stone axes and celts have been collected here in past 
years. 

7. Hollister Enclosure and Mounds. These were located on 
September 30, 1901, by the field party already referred to. 
Mr. W. J. Bennetts, a member, furnished the following brief 



86 Wisconsin Archeologist 

description of it at a meeting of the Section held on October 
17, 1901. "This horseshoe shaped earthwork is situated close 
to the river bank at the point of an abrupt bend and just 
inside the edge of a level, open grove of oaks. It forms 290 
or rather more than three-fourths of a complete circle 125 feet 
in diameter, the open side being about 50 feet from the water's 
edge. The bank of earth itself is one foot high and averages 
11 feet wide. Although there are many trees, some 7 feet in 
circumference, within the enclosure there are no trees growing 
on the earthwork itself." 

"In the same grove, and less than one-fourth mile distant, 
are two oblong mounds in line and separated by a distance of 
30 feet. One is 80 feet long and 23 feet wide, the other 42 
feet long and 20 feet wide. The latter was excavated some 
years ago and the skeleton of a boy found therein, in a good 
state of preservation." 

The enclosure is in the NE}4 of Section 29, and the two 
oblong 'mounds in the SE 1 ^ of Section 20, both on land owned 
by A. N. Hollister. Both are on the south side of the Fox, 
near the so-called "Horseshoe" bend. 

Mr. 0. L. Hollister, of Milwaukee, has in his collection a 
grooved stone axe and several stone celts collected on the 
Hollister farm. A fine copper spud was obtained near the 
spring located across the road from the Hollister farm house. 
No evidence of a camp site has been found on this farm. 

8. Oberne Mounds. Two oblong mounds were located by the 
field party on the Henry Oberne property, on the south side 
of the Fox River, in the NW*4 of Section 29. These are about 
half a mile from the enclosure. "One of these has been partly 
removed as it encroached upon the abandoned right-of-way of 
the projected Beloit & Southwestern R. R. The remaining 
mound is 57 feet long, 34 feet wide and 3 feet high. The 
mounds are about 120 feet from the river." W. J. Bennetts. 

These mounds are located by Lapham on Plate XV, of The 
Antiquities of Wisconsin. 

9. Lartz Camp Site. In 1904, Mr. 0. L. Hollister reported 
to the Society on indications of a former native camp and 
workshop site on the I. Lartz place, on the north bank of the 
Fox river, in the SE*4 of Section 21. 

This site is diagonally across the river from the Dewey 
mound group. Mr. Hollister has collected a grooved axe, a 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 87 

small stone spud, and flint arrow and spearpoints from this 
site. Mr. Lartz also collected here many implements, which 
he sold to the veteran collector, F. S. Perkins, of Burlington. 

10. Dewey Mounds. This group of Indian earthworks, the 
finest in Vernon Township, was surveyed by Dr. Lapham, in 
1850. He describes it in The Antiquities of Wisconsin* and 
figures it in his Plates XIV, XV and XVI. The principal 
part of it is shown in Plate XVI. The group is also figured 
by Mr. George A. West in his monograph, "The Indian Author- 
ship of Wisconsin Antiquities," published by the Society, in 
December, 1907.* Mr. West's figure is based on notes taken 
by members of the Society, on November 8, 1906, and which 
correct some errors made in the earlier Lapham plat. 

This fine mound group, which has been visited by many 
interested persons in recent years, was located on property 
owned for many years by E. I. Dewey, a short distance south 
of the Pishtaka or Fox river, in the NE% of Sec. 28. The Mil- 
waukee Electric Railway line passes by it, the station known as 
Pishtaka being near it. It consisted originally of three conical, 
'thirty-three linear and oval and ten effigy mounds. Eleven 
of the short linears were located at a little distance from the 
balance of the group. (See Lapham 's Plate XIV) and might 
be considered as a separate group. These latter and some 
other mounds located by Lapham are not included in Mr. 
West's plate, all having been destroyed by the cultivation of 
the land upon which they were located long before the year 
1906. The principal mounds were situated in a pasture ad- 
joining the Dewey farmhouse. These are illustrated in Plate 2. 
Of the effigies in the Dewey pasture one was an unidenti- 
fied quadruped. Directly in its rear were three bird effigies 
with outstretched wings, and in the rear of these six other 
effigies, three being turtle and three panther effigies. On the 
panther effigies one was peculiar in having the tip of its long 
tail curved upward and one had a small knob at the end of its 
tail. The third was of the very common form, having a long 
tapering tail ending in a point. Two of the linear mounds 
were of the long tapering type, the others of the common 
straight parallel-sided form. 

Dr. Lapham refers to the Dewey mounds as being located at 
" Crawf ordsville " and states that "it was once proposed to 



* Wis. Archeo., V. 6, No. 4. 



88 Wisconsin Archeologlst 

build a village or city" here to be called by that name. He 
says: "This is the place mentioned by R. C. Taylor (Silli- 
mans Amer. Journal of Science and Art, 1st series, XXXIV. 95) 
as stated in the western papers to contain a group of mounds 
resembling lizards, alligators, and flying dragons. I have en- 
deavored to represent these monsters as they appear upon 
careful survey and plotting." They occupy ground sloping 
gently towards the river at the north and northwest, their 
heads pointing up hill, and their general course southwesterly. 
The winged mounds or dragons (three in number) appear to 
lead the flight or march of the other animals, and to be 
heralded by a host of simple oblong figures, extending nearly 
half a mile in the same direction. An enlarged view of one 
of the winged mounds is shown in Plate XVII, No. 1 ; and the 
group of oblong mounds, forming the "advance guard," is 
shown on Plate XIV, No. 2. The main figure in the general 
group is shown on an enlarged scale (Plate XVII, No. 2), and 
is two hundred and eighty-six feet in length. This and the one 
immediately preceding it are good representatives of the kind 
called lizards (now panthers) ; while the two exterior figures, 
having four projections or feet, are always called turtles by 
the most casual observer. These are from two to six feet in 
height. 

"A little north of the mounds represented on Plate XVI is a very 
large one, ten feet in perpendicular height, and eighty feet in diameter 
at the base. Its situation is such as to command a view of the 
valley for two or three miles both above and below. It had been 
opened prior to our visit, but without important results. It has an 
appendage of a slight ridge of earth, sixty feet long, extending from 
its base in a northeasterly direction. Immediately north of it is an 
excavation from one to two feet in depth. The earth taken from 
this excavation, however, would mak but a small part of the large 
mound. South of these the ground continues to rise to a high ridge, 
occupied by the roads, as shown on the map, Plate XV." 

This was evidently a mound of the type classed as a club- 
shaped linear. Lapham also shows in his Plate XV a straight 
linear and oval mounds (?) situated a short distance east of 
the main group. In concluding his description of the Dewey 
mounds he says : "As seen in the plate, many of these mounds 
are in a grove of timber, and have not been disturbed by culti- 
vation. It is much to be hoped that the good taste of the 




Dewey Group 

Vernon Township 

Plate 2 



Waukesha, County Southern Townships 89 

present intelligent proprietor will induce him to preserve 
them from destruction. This locality was doubtless one of 
much importance to the original inhabitants. It is protected 
on three sides by the marshy grounds along the margin of the 
river; and on the heights in the rear are several mounds, in- 
dicating that outposts may have been guarded, so as to give 
warning of the first approach of an enemy." 

Mr. Dewey endeavored to protect, as well as he was able, 
the mounds remaining in the pasture. However, in 1906, one 
of the bird effigies had been dug into at the center of its body, 
between the wings. . No information of the results of this ex- 
ploration was obtainable. For years the Wisconsin Arche- 
ological Society has strongly advocated the preservation of the 
remaining mounds of this group in a public park. Others have 
labored to the same end. Quite recently the Dewey farm has 
passed into other hands and the hope of saving any of these 
mounds, is at this time, very doubtful. 

Kev. S. D. Peet mentions that an Indian trail leading to the 
Muskego lake region, crossed the Fox river near the Dewey 
mounds. Lapham shows it as passing in a general east and 
west direction through the middle of the group. 

11. Marshall Camp Site. In 1921 Mr. 0. L. Hollister "found 
evidences of an Indian camp site about half a mile west of the 
Dewey mounds on land of H. F. Sargent, now owned by Max 
Marshall, in the SW% of Section 21. This site is perhaps 200 
yards east of the two mounds on the old Hollister farm. Some 
of this 37 acres was plowed and it was on the west edge of the 
plowing that we found numerous fireplace stones, a fair quan- 
tity of flint chips, two or three poor arrow points and a few 
potsherds. Evidently the plow just hit the edge of the site. 
No doubt additional evidence will be uncovered if they ever 
plow farther west toward the two mounds." Reported May 
1, 1923. 

12. Abels Village Site. On the Frank Abels farm, on the 
north side of the Fox River (SW*4 of Sec. 22), Mr. O. L. 
Hollister found evidences of a former Indian village site, con- 
sisting of numerous flint chips, rejects, arrow points, hearth 
stones, potsherds, and hammer stones, and several rude stone 
hoe blades. This location is just east of the north and south 
road which here crosses the Fox. This information was re- 



90 Wisconsin Archeologist 

ported by him to the Wisconsin Archeological Society, May 
1, 1923. 

13. Sargent Mounds. A group of five oval mounds was lo- 
cated on the H. F. Sargent farm (SW% Sec. 28). These, Mr. 
0. L. Hollister reported to the writer, were in 1908, almost 
obliterated by frequent plowing of the land. They were lo- 
cated, Mr. Sargent estimated, "thirty rods or more east of his 
barns, and about 10 rods north of the road." This location 
is southwest of the Dewey group. 

14. Davis Mounds. Situated at the top of a wooded ridge 
on the Mark L. Davis farm there is a single conical or round 
mound and three oblong mounds. These are in the W% of 
Section 33, and are quite remote from the river. They lie half 
a mile east of Dodges Corners. Two of the linear mounds are 
each 100 feet and the third is 53 feet in length. The conical 
mound has a diameter of 30 feet. 

About a quarter of a mile distant from these mounds, on 
the end of another ridge, at one time well wooded but now 
destitute of trees, is what is probably the longest mound in 
this part of the county. It is a tapering club-shaped earth- 
work 353 feet long, 21 feet wide and 2 feet high at the largest 
end and about 8 feet wide at the other end. " W. J. Bennetts, 
Field Party, September 30, 1901. 

15. McBean Mounds. This group of five conical mounds is 
located on the McBean farm in the SE^ of the SEi/ 4 of Section 
15, at a distance of nearly a mile north of the Fox river. The 
mounds are in a piece of woodland at a distance of nearly 400 
feet north of the road to Chamberlin. Just west of the mounds is 
a creek, this stream flowing south to the Fox river. The five 
mounds are separated from each other by distances of from 34 
to 74 feet. They are from 20 to 27 feet in diameter and the 
highest is only 2i/> feet high at its middle. 

All of these mounds have been dug into at some time in the 
past by relic hunters and several have been badly mutilated. 
Near the mounds are a number of circular depressions which 
probably mark the locations of former provision caches. They 
are now about 4 feet in diameter and from 6 to 8 inches deep, 
being filled with earth. Several were later excavated and 
found to have been originally about 5 to 5% feet deep. In a 
field on the south side of the road is a former Indian camp 



Waukcsha County Southern Townships 91 

and workshop site. Here many flint and other implements 
have been collected by Mr. 0. L. Hollister. Mr. J. M. W. Pratt, 
of Milwaukee reported the existence of these mounds to the 
Society, November 11, 1909. They were platted by C. E. 
Brown and 0. L. Hollister, October 16, 1910. 

16. Austin Grave. On the Hiram Austin farm (Sec. 17) 
over two miles southwest of Vernon P. O. there was in 1846, the 
grave of an Indian woman. This was marked at its head "by 
a gaily painted post." This grave remained until 1880, when 
the bones of its occupant were disturbed by the plow.* Some 
glass beads were afterwards found here. 

Big Bend 

17. Big Bend Group No. 1. At the village of Big Bend, lo- 
cated near the eastern boundary of Vernon township, the Fox 
river flowing through the township from west to east makes 
a turn and changes the direction of its flow to the southwest. 
Here there formerly were two very imposing groups of mounds 
and a number of smaller groups. One of these was located 
by Dr. Lapham in the year 1850, and the other in later years, 
in the eighties, by Rev. Stephen D. Peet. The group located by 
Peet was situated in the SWi/4 of Section 24, a short distance 
east of the village of Big Bend. 

On September 21, 1902, this group was first visited by a 
party of members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, con- 
sisting of Dr. Lewis Sherman, Dr. Charles D. Stanhope, Mr. H. 
A. Cresby, Mr. 0. J. Habhegger, Mr. A. F. Laue, all of Mil- 
waukee; Mr. Holland L. Porter and Mr. Glen Camp, of Muk- 
wonago, and the writer. At this time this group of mounds 
was located partly on property owned by the A. Putna'm estate 
and partly on the adjoining Rose property. These farms have 
since changed ownership. A plat of the group was made at 
that time. This shows a group of eight earthworks consisting 
of six oval mounds, a panther effigy having the extremity of its 
long tail up-curved, and a curious fishhook shaped earthwork 
or partial enclosure. 

Measurements taken of the mounds were as follows : 

1. Oval mound 38x65 feet. Had been under cultivation for 
twenty years. Reported to have originally been about 
3 feet high. 



West. Hist. Co., Hist, of Wauk. Co., 991. 



92 Wisconsin Archeologist 



2. Oval mound 27x60 feet, 4 feet high at its middle. Ex- 
cavated by relic hunters but without noteworthy results. 

3. Oval mound 25x65 feet, 3^ feet high at its middle. 
Growing on it are a white and a black oak and a maple 
tree, these having diameters of 2, 2% and 2% feet. 

4. Oval mound 20x80 feet, 3 feet high at middle. 

5. Panther effigy. Length 411 feet, width across head and 
fore limb 44 feet, across body 23 to 24 feet, curve at ex- 
tremity of tail 12 feet in diameter, mound 3% feet high 
at center of body. A black oak 2 feet in diameter grew 
on the rear limb. 

6. Oval mound 24x42 feet. Under cultivation in a corn 
field. 

7. Oval mound 22x52 feet, 3i/ 2 feet high at its middle. 

8. Fishhook shaped earthwork. Total length 664 feet, 
width 15 to 25 feet, elevation li/ 2 to 2y 2 feet. 

Dr. Peet describes this group of mounds and the succeeding 
group on pages 199 to 205 of his book, Prehistoric America, II, 
(1898), and figures both in his figures 137 and 138. His 
description is rather fanciful and his figures not complete as 
to the number of mounds in this group. A group of caches 
which he shows near the head of the panther effigy could not 
be located in 1902. He failed to note the fishhook shaped 
embankment and missed three of the oval mounds. 

This interesting mound group is probably now largely or 
wholly destroyed. It was situated on a tongue of elevated 
land (See Laphams Plate XV), once covered with a forest. 
To the west of this land a creek fed by a number of springs 
and flowing southward into the Fox river, in 1850, separated 
it from the then small settlement of Big Bend. On the south 
and east of it low and marshy land lay between it and the Fox 
river. In this marshy land wild rice formerly grew and in 
the marsh to the east of the site Peet located the remains of 
a former beaver dam. Surrounded on three sides by marsh 
and water this was an ideal site for an aboriginal village. 

18. Big Bend Group No. 2. Nearly half a mile southeast 
of the foregoing group and across the marsh from it was the 
most important group of the Big Bend region. It is figured 
by Lapham in -his Plate XV. His description of it is very 
brief. The mounds were strung out for a distance of over half 
a mile on both sides of the Fox river road leading southward 
from Big Bend. According to Lapham 's map there were in 
this group a total of 28 mounds, 14 of which were linear in 



s i 





c\ 

\j 

f\ 
O 



,- 



n 

u 



Q) 

Bend Group No. 2 
Plate 3 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 93 

>rm, one an effigy and the remainder conical or round mounds. 
These are shown as located chiefly in the NE^4 of Section 25, 
a few, at the southern end of the line, being situated in the 
southeast and southwest quarters of the same section. 

Rev. Peet in his Fig. 138 shows two panther effigies at the 
northern end of the group (which Lapham failed to locate), 
nineteen straight linear mounds, and ten bird effigies with 
curved wings, at the southern end of the group. He shows the 
group to have been located on wooded land, with a marsh to 
the east of it, the Fox river bounding it on the west and creeks 
flowing into the river to the north and south of it. His figure 
does not include the mounds south of the creek. 

In Plate 3 there is shown a plat of this group made by Mr. 
Howland Russel, the former well-known Milwaukee architect, 
and submitted to the Society in 1913. Some of the mounds 
at the south end of the group had then disappeared. This 
plat is based on a careful survey and may be accepted as correct 
as far as it extends. It corresponds with Peet's figure as to 
the location of the two panther effigies at the northern end of 
the group but shows a turtle effigy at the southern end, which 
Peet did not find. Russell found sixteen linear and oval 
mounds. 

19. Nicolai Mounds. The mounds which Lapham locates 
south of the creek which flows into the Fox river south of the 
foregoing group, may be considered as a separate group. 
Measurements of these and notes were taken for the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society, in 1902. They were situated on prop- 
erty then belonging to H. E. Nicolai (Ny 2 , SWi/4 Sec. 25). 
These consisted of : 

1. Conical mound. 100 feet in diameter, 10 feet high. 

2. Oval mound. On the Fox river bank, partly washed 
away. Length 40 feet, present width 18 feet. The 
river is about 75 feet wide at this point. 

3. Conical mound. Forty feet in diameter, 2y 2 feet high. 
Location is 54 feet west of No. 2, 75 feet south of the 
river. 

4. Conical mound. Probably formerly 50 feet in diameter. 
Sixty feet east of No. 3 and 60 feet from the river bank. 

5. Conical mound. Diameter 25 feet. Sixty feet west of 
No. 4 and 90 feet from the river bank. 

6. Conical mound. Diameter 60 feet, height 5 feet. In 
cultivated field, 30 feet southwest of No. 5 and about 
Il5 feet from the river bank. 



94 Wisconsin Archeologist 

1. Linear mound. One hundred feet in length, 20 feet 
wide and 3 feet high. In cultivated field. 

8. Conical mound. Diameter 50 feet. 

9. Linear mound. Length 150 feet, width 20 feet. Is 
located at the corner of the section. 

Conical mound No. 1 was excavated in July, 1902, by Mr. 
Lafayette Ellarson. In it he found a burial chamber con- 
structed of cobblestones, and in this chamber, a little to the 
north of the center of the mound, the bones of a skeleton, the 
skull being placed between the leg bones. With these remains 
were found two very interesting stone pipes, which Mr. George 
A. West has described and figured in his monograph, The Ab- 
original Pipes of Wisconsin, and which are included in the 
fine collection of Indian pipes presented by him to the Mil- 
waukee Public Museum.* 

One of these is a curved base monitor pipe with a spool 
shaped bowl. It is made of a black slaty rock. Both the rim 
of the bowl and the stem-hole extremity of the base are orna- 
mented with incised decorations. The handled pipe is made 
of a fine-grained yellow sandstone, unpolished, its surface 
blackened by use and age. The body of this pipe is circular 
and has a large perforation through which the smoker's finger 
could be slipped. The tapering mouthpiece projects from one 
side of the top of the circle. The bowl, on top of the circle, 
is carved to represent a bird, "probably a fishhawk or crow." 

20. Maney Effigy. On property formerly owned by T. 
Maney, south of the foregoing mounds (W%, SE14 Sec. 25), 
there was in 1902, a turtle type mound but lacking the usual 
long tapering tail. It was situated in an orchard and at a 
distance of 150 feet east of the river road. Its total length, 
north and south, was 114 feet. The distance across the middle 
of the body was 50 and at the fore and hind limbs 76 feet. 
Lapham figures this mound in his Plate XVI. He mentions it 
on page 26 of The Antiquities of Wisconsin. One or two other 
examples of this type of mound have been located elsewhere 
in southern Wisconsin. Some other mounds formerly located 
on this property have been destroyed. 

On this place the Potawatomi Indians camped in early days 
of the white settlement of this region, also occasionally in 
small numbers in later years. Several stone celts and grooved 



Wis. Archeo., Vol. 4, Nos. 3 and 4 pp. 122 and 126-127, Figs. Ill and 115. 




Linear Mound 

Big Bend Group Xo. .> 

Plate .', 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 95 

stone axes and a few stemmed flint points have been collected 
here in past years. 

21. Other Big Bend Mounds. Lapham, on his map, Plate 
XV, shows two conical mounds to have been located a short 
distance north of the Fox river, in the southeast corner of the 
NE*4 of Section 26. About one-fourth mile north of these on 
more elevated land was a group of three mounds consisting of 
a turtle shaped mound, but lacking the usual long tapering 
tail and two straight linear mounds directly behind it. 

At a distance of a half mile west of these mounds were two 
other linear mounds of the same character. These were in the 
NEi/4 of the NW!/4 of Section 26. Their location was a short 
distance south of the road leading from the Waukesha-Racine 
county line to Big Bend. 

22. Peet Mounds. Rev. Stephen D. Peet located a group of 
four panther (?) and five conical or oval mounds about one- 
half mile northwest of Big Bend (NBi/4 Sec. 23). These were 
on the east side of a creek flowing south to the Fox river. He 
gives no description of these earthworks which were probably 
on the John Paul farm.* The heads of the effigies are directed 
toward the southwest. These are in two parallel lines of two 
each with two of the oval mounds between the lines. Three 
other oval mounds were a short distance southeast of these 
mounds.* 

MUSKEGO TOWNSHIP 

The abundance of fish and game in the Muskego Lakes 
region, the dense thickets and heavy timber made it a favorite 
location for Indian camps and villages. Muskego lake is the 
largest lake in Waukesha county. Its length is given as four 
miles, its greatest width two miles and its circumference eleven 
miles. Its area in 1883 was 3,165 acres. Muskego creek, which 
flows into it at its western side, connects it with Little Muskego 
lake, which lies at a distance of one and one-half miles to the 
northwest of it. This small lake is one and one-half miles long 
and slightly over one mile wide. Muskego lake is drained at 
its southern end by a canal, formerly Muskego creek, which 
carries its waters into Wind lake, in Racine county. This canal 
has greatly reduced the former water area of the lake, broad 



* 2 Preh. Am., Fig. 137. 



96 Wisconsin Archeologist 

marshes and lands now under cultivation occupying the former 
lake bed. Eight creeks flow into the lake. Denoon, a small 
lake, lies in the southwestern corner of the township, its south- 
ern portion extending into Racine county. On the State Land 
Office map (1836) the name of the lake is given as Musk ee 
guack. This name has been interpreted to mean "sunfish" 
and "the fishing place". The Indian name for Little Muskego 
is given as Puk woth sic, meaning "a high piece of ground, a 
hill," this probably referring to some of the higher lands on 
its shores. On the above mentioned map it is called Po wack 
sin u ache. Its significance has not been explained. Denoon 
lake is called Mo nish na pish. Indian camp and village sites 
were at one time and another located on nearly every part of 
the shores of both Little Muskego and Muskego lakes. A 
variety of camp refuse still indicates the location of some of 
these sites. From them thousands of stone and a small number 
of implements made of other materials have been collected 
in the past seventy years. Peter J. Vieau, a son of the early 
Milwaukee trader, formerly possessed a considerable number of 
stone and some other implements found on the village site on 
Muskego creek, between the two lakes. Some of these he pre- 
sented to the Old Settlers Club, at Milwaukee. This region 
has always been a favorite collecting ground for the Milwaukee 
members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society. The late 
Mr. William H. Ellsworth, 0. L. Hollister, C. A. Koubeck, 
Rudolph Boettger, C. G. Schoewe and others have collected 
hundreds of specimens in the Muskego Lake region. Mr. 
Schoewe and Mr. Boettger have informed the writer that they 
have each gathered nearly a thousand flint implements from 
various sites on the shores of the two lakes. They have also 
collected other implements including axes, celts, a. gouge, 
hammer stones, and a discoidal. In their fishing and hunting 
the Indians used dugout canoes. In 1899, Dr. E. J. W. Notz 
of Milwaukee, found one of these canoes, which measured 
twenty or more feet in length, in the marsh at the northern 
end of the lake. A part of this large canoe is to be seen at 
Bass bay, where it is on permanent exhibition. There were 
Indian trails on both the east and west sides of Muskego lake. 
Dr. Lapham visited the Muskego region on June 4, 1850, 
driving out with a horse from Milwaukee. Mr. Alanson Skinner 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 97 

obtained from the Potawatomi the information that Muskego 
lake was the former place of residence of their Sunfish band. 

Little Muskego Lake 

1. Inlet Camp Site. An Indian camp site is located on a 
farm at the north end of Little Muskego lake owned in 1903 
by Mrs. Janet Kippers (Wi/2 Sec. 4), and on the W. Carpenter 
place adjoining it on the south. When Mrs. Kippers took up 
her residence here in 1863, a few Potawatomi were camping 
on the land. From this farm a quite large number of stone 
implements, including flint points, axes and celts have been 
collected, some being in the possession of the owner and others 
in the collection of William Kippers of Prospect Hill. Two 
copper axes were also found. Flint chips and fragments were 
scattered over the fields on this farm. 

In excavating a small gravel knoll on the east bank of Mill 
creek, a short distance north of the lake, a human jaw bone 
and other bones, and a celt and several flint points were 
obtained. There is a fine spring on the Kippers place, which 
the aboriginal inhabitants must have appreciated. 

Evidences of aboriginal flint working were also found on the 
Carpenter farm. They also occur in the fields east of the 
Kippers' farm, between the north end of the lake and 
Muskego creek on its northeast side. Some flint points have 
also been collected here. Indications of a camp site are also 
found 011 the J. Coiiroy farm on the east shore of Little Muskego 
(SB14, Sec. 4). 

2. Schuet Camp Site. A camp site is located on the J. C. 
Schuet farm at the southeast side of Little Muskego (SE 1 ^ and 
NE 1 /^ Sec. 9), north of the road leading from Muskego to 
Tess Corners. Both Dr. E. J. W. Notz and C. G. Schoewe, 
members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, have col- 
lected flint implements from the fields of this farm. Flint 
chipping sites were formerly to be seen in a number of places 
in the cultivated fields. 

3. Muskego Creek Village. This village site is located at 
the foot of Little Muskego lake, on both sides of Muskego 
creek (which connects Little Muskego with Muskego lake), 
lying about one and one-half miles to the south of it. In this 
locality evidences of aboriginal occupation are found on the 



98 Wisconsin Archeologist 

Claflin and Ferguson places, on the east side of the creek and 
north of the T. M. E. R. & L. Co. line (SE% Sec. 9 and the 
NEi/4 of Sec. 16), on the south side of the line. Mr. Peter J. 
Vieau, the pioneer, informed the writer that when he came to 
this region this site was occupied by a Potawatomi village of 
several hundred persons. They occupied bark and rush mat- 
ting covered wigwams and were engaged in hunting and 
fishing. Much of this site has been long under cultivation. 
On the Ferguson place evidences of aboriginal occupation such 
as flint chips and fragments, hearthstones and other Indian 
debris was quite plentiful when the writer and others first 
visited this place in November 20, 1904. The Messrs. 0. L. 
Hollister and C. A. Koubeck of Milwaukee have collected 
from this field a considerable number of flint arrow and spear 
points, rejects, hammer stones and other specimens. Pieces 
of deer bones, some of them cracked to obtain the marrow, 
have been found. 

On property then belonging to Mr. John Schmidt, on the 
south side of the electric railway line, there were a series of 
eight circular pits (several others have since been reported). 
These were located on the edge of a woodland which occupied 
this part of the farm. These pits were from 8 to 12 feet in 
diameter and only from 2 to 3 feet in depth, having become 
filled in with soil and leaves. Mr. Vieau stated that some of 
them were used for the winter storage of corn, bark shelters 
being erected over them. Beyond these pits was a small 
swampy area, one pit being located on the opposite side. The 
old grade of the Beloit and Southwestern Railway extended 
through these woods. 

The planting ground of this village was located on the 
Southern edge of the woodland, between the creek and marsh. 
The area under cultivation was small, the agricultural products 
being corn, beans and pumpkins. Every trace of the corn 
fields has long since disappeared. When Mr. William Elliott, 
the original owner, was in possession of this land it was known 
to the settlers as the ''Planting Ground Eighty." On the 
edge of the forest there were once a number of Indian graves. 
These were marked with a stake at the head and foot. Nas 
ke woin was the chief of this village. He was known as 
John Buckwheat. He died and was buried here. One of his 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 99 

sons was Ba she qua na quet, One Cloud. This information 
was obtained by Dr. A. Gerend from Mr. Simon Kahquados, 
a Potawatomi historian, now residing in Forest county, Wis- 
consin. Mr. Alanson Skinner very kindly furnished the fol- 
lowing additional data concerning this chief, from information 
obtained from Mr. Sam Wau'piika, an Oklahoma Potawatomi: 
"Nas ke worn" Nashki'wun or 'Squealing-on-the-way' (to 
feed its young), a name of the Bald Eagle gens. He was one 
of four brothers (the eldest), a chief of the Muskiqua or 
Sunfish band, who died in Wisconsin. The brothers were 
K'tcika'nowas, or Big Eagle; Kino'tiso, Eagle-flies-low, and 
Ma'skeras, Head-the-Red Cloud." 

4. Muskego Creek Mounds. In 1850 Dr. Lapham located a 
group of mounds on the bank of Muskego creek. "Also on the 
west side of Muskego lake (E% of NE% of Sec. 16) is a 
group of works represented in Plate XIV., No. 1. They con- 
sist of two parallel ridges [straight linear mounds] at the 
extremity of a small promontory nearly surrounded by marshy 
grounds, and a ridge [tapering linear mound] and some cir- 
cular mounds [three] on another point of land opposite. There 
is a remarkable excavation in the bank here, which is doubtless 
the work of art, but its origin and the purpose for which it 
was made can now only be a subject for conjecture."* The 
two parallel linear mounds were on the north side of Muskego 
creek and the four other mounds on its south side. The road 
to Milwaukee (Waterford road) ran between the latter mounds, 
which were in a woodland. One of the three conical mounds 
was on the south side of this road, in the NE 1 /^ of the SE 1 ^ of 
Section 16. 

This site was visited September 6, 1903, by Mr. C. A. Kou- 
beck. Every trace of the mounds had then disappeared. The 
promontory mentioned by Lapham was nearly gone, having 
been removed to obtain gravel for road construction. It was 
evident that there had been an Indian village site here. The 
investigator was successful in collecting some flint arrow 
points, flint nodules, hammer stones, potsherds, a part of a 
skull and pieces of human bones. 

Mr. John Schmidt, on whose property these mounds were 
located, has collected a stone axe and a few flint points here. 
In excavating the knoll for gravel human bones were disin- 



Antiq. of Wis., 50. 



100 Wisconsin Archeologist 

terred. In a visit to this farm, made July 6, 1907, the writer 
collected a number of flint points and hammer stones on a 
field in the NEi/4 of the SEVi of Section 16. On the same 
farm and an adjoining field on the north side of the Waterford 
road (N% of the SE 1 /! of Sec. 16), on elevated ground, hearth- 
stones, flint nodules, chips and points and hammer stones 
were noted. 

Mnxkc(jo Lake 

5. Bass Bay Mounds. A group of three conical mounds was 
located on property formerly (1904) belonging to Martin Baas, 
on the north shore of Bass bay, at the northern extremity of 
Muskego lake (NW^/i of the NEVi of Sec. 15). The three 
mounds were in an irregular line, the southerly mound being 
within 26 feet of the shore of the bay. It was 42 feet in 
diameter and .'> feet high. Thirty-nine feel north of it was a 
mound 4f> feet in diameter and 4 feet high, and about 60 feel 
northwest of this another '.VI feet in diameter and about 3 
feet high. 

The conical mound on the lake shore was excavated by the 
writer, Col. John B. Zaun and others on June 3, 1905. The 
excavating was begun at its eastern side, three foot slices of 
earth being removed across it and down to the original surface 
of the ground. 

At a distance of 10 feet from this edge of the mound scat- 
tered, cracked and broken stones, flint chips, small pieces of 
pottery, pieces of charred bone and traces of charcoal were 
found in the black soil. These had probably been scraped up 
with the soil and thus entered into the mound during its 
construction. At and near the center of the mound and ex- 
tending slightly down into the underlying bed of clay, a con- 
fused mass of human bones was encountered. Most of the 
larger bones were in a x good state of preservation, the smaller 
ones in process of decay. The skulls were crushed only two 
being nearly entire. There were seven skulls in all. No 
implements accompanied these bone burials. A piece of 
charred wood 8 inches long was found near the bone mass. 
Doubtless these bones were removed to the mound from tempo- 
rary burial places elsewhere. The presence of a few bones 
within a short distance of the top of the mound indicated a 
subsequent burial. 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 101 

Bone burials have also occurred in other mounds explored 
or destroyed in this vicinity. 

Two stone celts and a gouge were collected in this vicinity, 
the latter by Mr. Rudolph Boettger, of Milwaukee. Flint 
arrow points, split deer bones and. teeth have also been found. 

6. Sobek Mound. A linear mound 80 feet long, 24 feet wide 
and 2 feet high was located on the F. Sobek farm (NEi/4 of 
the NW^xi f Sec. 15) to the west of the Bass Bay mounds. 
This mound was in a grove of hickory, ash and other trees 
at a distance of about 600 feet northwest of the bay shore, 
and on land but slightly elevated above it. A black oak stump 
on its western extremity was 33 inches in diameter. Mr. Sobeck 
informed the writer that in excavating this mound, near its 
center fragments of birchbark were encountered, but no human 
bones or other objects. 

7. Kurtze Mounds and Village Site. On the Kurtze prop- 
erty south of the Sobek place, on the west side of Bass bay, 
there was a group of four mounds (SB 1 /! of the NE!/4 of Sec. 
15). Three of these, a conical mound, 30 feet in diameter and 
3 feet high; an oval mound, 28 feet long, 18 feet wide and 4 
feet high, and another conical mound, 24 feet in diameter and 
3i/> feet high, were located in a grove on the bank of the bay. 
The bank opposite this point was from 9 to 12 feet high. The 
last mound was 300 feet from it. A fourth conical mound was 
located in a cultivated field at a distance of about 100 feet 
southwest of the last mound. Its excavation had been under- 
taken by unknown persons and then abandoned as a fruitless 
undertaking. From it Mr. 0. L. Hollister obtained a few 
fragments of human bones and teeth. It was constructed of 
surface black soil. 

Evidences of a former Indian village site were found (1904) 
in the cultivated fields between the mounds and the Kurtze 
farm house, to the west on the south side of the Waterford 
to Milwaukee road. Chips and fragments of white and greyish 
chert were encountered everywhere. Messrs. Koubeck and 
Hollister have collected here flint points, potsherds, hammer 
stones and other implements. Mr. Kurtze had also collected 
many specimens. When Mr. H. Kurtze settled here, in 1856, 
a few Menomini were camping here. They used conical canvas 
wigwams. 



102 Wisconsin Archeologlst 

In its implement yield the Kurtze site appears to have been 
the richest in the entire Muskego Lakes region. It extended 
west and south from the Bass bay shore to the bank of Muske- 
go creek and beyond it. On this part of the site the Messrs. 
C. G. Schoewe and Rudolph Boettger of Milwaukee, collected 
in a single day (April 26, 1913) one hundred flint points, 
scrapers, knives, perforators and blanks. Other interesting 
specimens obtained here on this and other occasions include 
a discoidal, moss agate knife, brown chalcedony point, serrated 
flint points and one of the rare truncated triangular flint 
points. Several grooved stone axes have been found by other 
collectors. Flint arrow points found here are of a wide range 
of form leaf shape, triangular, stemmed, notched and barbed. 

A specimen count of the finds of implements found on the 
Kurtze site, if one could be made, would show a surprisingly 
large number. This, however, is not possible because of the 
number of persons who have collected here in past years. 

8. West Shore Camp Sites. Old Indian camp sites also oc- 
cur along the irregular marshy border of Lake Muskego at 
intervals between the Kurtze site and the south shore of the 
lake. Some of these are of limited extent. They have not 
yet received much attention from collectors, the richer sites 
at the north end of the lake region being more attractive. 

9. Waterford Road Mounds. A group of four conical 
mounds was located at the Waterford-Milwaukee road. Three 
of these were on the John Schmidt farm on the north side 
of the road (SW% of the NW!/i of Sec. 15), and one near the 
Kurtze farmhouse, on the south side. A vestige of only one 
of these mounds remained in 1904. It was located just inside 
the Schmidt fence, on the north side of the road. This mound 
appeared to have been about 25 feet in diameter. Scattered 
human bones, a bone burial, were found in this mound. The 
Kurtze mound was located east of the house and about 50 feet 
south of the road. In removing this large mound in about 
the year 1870, to use the clay soil to fill some low places on his 
land, Mr. Kurtze and his helpers encountered at its base the 
bones of about thirty-six human skeletons, doubtless a bone 
burial. No implements were found. 

10. Latander Graves. At the southwest corner of Mr. 
Martin Baas' orchard, on the north shore of Bass bay, and on 



aukeslm C ounty 6 oumern 1 ownshtps 

east side of a creek emptying into it (NEi/4 Sec. 15), 
beneath the branches of a large oak tree, there was in 1905 
a group of six or more graves reported to be those of relatives 
of the "half-breed Latander, " whose camp was on the point 
on the east shore of the bay. Latander requested of Mr. 
Charles Baas, the father of Mr. Martin Baas, that no one be 
permitted to disturb these during Mr. Baas' lifetime. Since 
then, -however, several of the graves have been explored by 
relic hunters. Several trade clay pipes and some iron knives 
and other articles of no particular value were found with the 
several skeletons. 

Andrew J. Vieau says of Jean Baptiste Le Tendre (Latander 
or Latonder) that he was a Canadian Frenchman not a half- 
breed. He was employed by his father, Jacques Vieau, and 
afterwards, by Solomon Juneau. He married a Potawatomi 
woman, Keecheeaqua (Big Woman). By her he had a son 
and two daughters. His wife dying in Kansas he returned to 
Milwaukee and bought a piece of land near Muskego Center. 
Mr. Vieau last saw him here in 1863 or 1864.* When em- 
ployed by Juneau, up to 1832, he often carried heavy loads 
of specie from Milwaukee to Chicago.* 

11. Latanders Point Village Site. This so-called point is 
on the north shore of the Muskego Lake marsh, the eastern 
shore of Bass bay forming its western boundary (NE and SE*4 
Fract. Sec. 15). This is a very attractive location and was 
in 1905 overgrown with fine trees. Numbers of Potawatomi 
formerly camped here. Several stone celts, a notched pebble 
sinker and a considerable number of flint points have been 
collected here. 

12. Bischof Camp Site. On property formerly owned by Mr. 
William Bischof and on several adjoining properties on the 
north shore of the Muskego Lake marsh (Cent. Fract. Sec. 14) 
indications of Indian occupation were formerly very plentiful. 
Flint chipping sites are still to be seen on several knolls on this 
land. Similar indications existed on the adjoining Ferdinand 
Bischof place. In past years the Bischof boys collected from 
these fields hundreds of flint points, blanks, rejects, knives and 
perforators. Some of these were purchased by the late Mil- 
waukee collector, William H. Ellsworth. Some stone axes, 
celts and chisels have also been found here. 



XI Wis. Hist. Colls., 245-46. 



104 Wisconsin Archeologist 

13. Schaefer Burials. In cultivating two gravel knolls on 
the John Schaefer farm (NEi/4 Sec. 14) two Indian burials 
were disinterred. One of the knolls is on each side of the road 
to Tess Corners. With one of these was found an iron knife, 
a brass ring and other trade jewelry. Mr. C. G. Schoewe has 
in his collection a small red catlinite Micmac pipe since found 
with another (?) burial in a gravel knoll on this farm. This 
pipe is interesting because of a small lead eye or ring which 
is set in its base and secured by a small lead rivet through its 
keel. The purpose of this eye was to secure the pipe to the 
stem by means of a thong or cord, a not uncommon feature in 
pipes of this class. He also has a chalcedony spear point found 
on this farm. In one field a large number of glass beads were 
found. This locality is east of the Bischof site, at the north- 
eastern angle of the Muskego Lake marshes. 

14. Tess Corners Road Planting Ground. On the farm of 
Louis Pellmann (S% of the SEi/4 Sec. 11) there were to be 
seen in the year 1850 the hills of a Potawatomi Indian corn 
field. It was five or six acres in extent and was on both sides 
of the present road. The soil was rich and good crops of 
corn must have been grown. This information was reported 
to the writer by Mr. William Bischof, an old resident of the 
Muskego Lake region, on November 23, 190f). This locality 
is over one-fourth mile north of the northwestern angle of the 
lake marshes. 

15. Camp Thomas (Vmrtn-y and ('a nip Site. On the farm 
of Mr. Rudolph Holt/ (\i/i> of the SWy 4 of Sec. 13) there is 
a Potawatomi Indian cemetery of thirty or more graves. This 
cemetery is about 212 feet south of the several cottages form- 
ing the summer resort known as Camp Thomas. These cot- 
tages were occupied in 1905 by the Messrs. Dr. Efnil Wahl, 
Dr. Williamson, Mr. Theodore Thomas and Mr. C. P. Cor- 
neille. 

In that year the graves which remained were arranged in 
two parallel rows. The head of the line of graves nearest 
the lake shore were from 5 to 6 feet from the edge of the lake 
bank which was here about 10 feet high and from 18 to 19 
feet from the edge of the marshy lake shore. Several other 
graves nearer the shore had been destroyed by the pawing 
away of the bank by Mr. Holtz cattle. In the line nearest 



Waukesha, County Southern Townships 105 

the bank fifteen graves were counted some four others being 
doubtful. In the second line, two feet in the rear of the first 
were seven graves, five others being doubtful. The graves were 
recognized by depressions in the soil. Some were marked at 
one or both ends by partly buried boulders. The graves in the 
two lines were from 4 to 7 feet apart, most of them being four 
feet apart. 

In past years, before the time of the writer's visit, several 
of the graves in this cemetery had been explored by curious 
persons and a few glass beads, sheet silver ornaments, brass 
rings, iron knives and other Indian trade materials found 
with the interments. In about the year 1881 a solitary grave, 
situated at a distance of about 15 feet northeast of the most 
northerly of the second line of graves, was exhumed by a Mr. 
Lorenz Schneider, a farm hand employed by Mr. Holtz. This 
grave, unlike the others, was covered by a small oval heap of 
boulders. The grave itself was shallow and contained a human 
skeleton, lying at full length with the skull to the west. With 
this burial a metal tomahawk pipe, an iron knife and two 
small copper kettles were found. Three other graves in the 
cemetery were afterwards disturbed by a party of relic hunters 
from Hales Corners. Of the results of their digging nothing 
is known. 

Two graves, the third and fourth from the northern end of 
the first line of graves were exhumed on June 11, 1905, with 
the owner's permission, by the writer and Mr. 0. L. Hollister. 
From the first grave, at a depth of less than two feet beneath 
the surface, a few dog teeth and a portion of a human jaw 
and a few pieces of bone were obtained. 

On removing the sod covering of the second grave a number 
of large stones and the, blade of an iron knife were found. 
Beneath these, at a depth of 2 feet below the surface of the 
ground, was a human skeleton stretched out at full length, its 
head toward the lake. The bones were in a poor state of 
preservation. The skull had been crushed by the weight of the 
earth and stones. This grave was found to have been enclosed 
on the sides and ends by a wooden frame of rough oak slabs 
about 8 inches high and one inch in thickness. 

J; the feet of this skeleton were found a considerable num- 
of small white glass beads which had probably ornamented 



106 Wisconsin Archeologist 

the moccasins and leggings of the dead. A number of small 
silver brooches, of the kind commonly used by Indians in 
ornamenting cloth dresses and other garments, were found 
scattered from the neck to near the feet of the skeleton. At 
the right hand were fragments of a silver bracelet and a few 
broken pieces of sheet copper. At the neck and chest were a 
number of small cone shaped silver bangles with rings at- 
tached. At the right of the skull were the remains of a small 
circular wooden casket and the fragments of a mirror, which 
had evidently been fastened to its cover or back. Within it 
was a brass thimble containing a small quantity of vermilion 
paint. Nearby were a fire steel and flint and a small badly 
rusted scissors. Small pieces and traces of charcoal were found 
throughout this grave, whose contents are preserved in the 
State Historical Museum, at Madison. 

Mr. Rudolph Boettger investigated another of these graves 
in the year 1916. 11 had been previously dug into by a farm 
hand and the skeleton disturbed and the bones broken and 
replaced. In an undisturbed part of the grave, at the right 
of this interment, he found a small sheet copper kettle with an 
iron bale. This was inverted over a shallow wooden dish pro- 
vided with a handle carved to represent a bird's head. In this 
cypress wood dish were found about fifteen pecan nuts and 
remnants of other food and some pieces of a whitish substance, 
probably chunks of corn meal. In the grave were also a knife, 
in form resembling an ordinary table knife, about a half dozen 
small silver dress brooches, about the same number of silver 
bangles (jinglers), several small glass beads, and a few small 
pieces of a coarse woven fabric. (See Frontispiece.) 

Mr. Boettger states that this interment was made at a depth 
of about four feet beneath the surface of the soil. This grave 
appeared also to have been wood enclosed. 

A short distance east of this cemetery there is a small grove 
in which the Potawatomi continued to camp in small numbers 
up to as late as the seventies. Mr. lloltz remembered their 
being here as early as 1847, ten years before his father acquired 
this land. Beyond the grove and about 300 feet east of the 
cemetery, there is a narrow tongue of land extending into a 
small marsh. Here the Indians planted their corn, the corn 
hills remained undisturbed until about the year 1885. In 



Waukcsha County Southern Townships 107 

the corner of a cultivated field adjoining this site on the north 
there was in 1903 another boulder-covered grave. 

16. Holtz Burials. In about the year 1870, when Mr. 
Rudolph Holtz dug the foundation for his barn on an elevated 
site on the west side of the Tess Corners and Durham road 
(SE1/4 of the SW 1 /} of Sec. 13), he disinterred three Indian 
burials. With these he found several iron spear points, a knife, 
file, and other iron implements. These specimens later came 
into the possession of a boy, Fred Fehrman. 

17. Marshland Camp Sites. South of the Camp Thomas site, 
in the NE}4 of Section 13 and NWi/4 of Section 14, on land 
under cultivation extending back from the lake marshes in 
a crescent shape, indications of a former camp or village con- 
sist of the usual flint debris, occasional hammer stones, bits 
of potsherds, and fragments of animal bones and clam shells, 
and hearth stones. The flint in use is mainly of a whitish color. 
From this site or sites boys residing on these and neighboring 
farms, have collected in past years, hundreds of flint points, 
some flint scrapers, knives and perforators, and some stone 
celts and axes. A stone gorget was also found here. 

Other camp sites are indicated at different points along the 
edge of the lake marshes in Sections 23, 24 and 26, south of this 
site. 

18. Russell Graves. The existence of a number of Indian 
graves on the farm of Mrs. W. Russell (SW^/i of the SEi/4 of 
Fract. Sec. 27), was reported to the Society by Mr. Rudolph 
Holtz, on June 11, 1905. These had not been disturbed. 

19. Southeast Shore Camp Sites and Mound. Charles G. 
Schoewe reports (May 1, 1923) evidences of camp sites on 
nearly every elevated field at the southeast side of the lake 
from the NE^4 of Section' 26 in a southeasterly direction to the 
N a /2 of Section 34. Here he and Mr. Rudolph Boettger have 
collected flint points, a stone celt and two grooved stone axes. 

A small conical mound located here by Mr. Schoewe is 
probably in the N 1 /-? of Section 34. 

20. Caesar Mound and Camp Site. A conical mound was 
located on the farm of W. Caesar, at the foot of -Muskego 
(SW14 Sec. 34). This mound had been dug into by relic 
hunters. It was re-excavated by Mr. E. F. Richter of Milwau- 
kee and others, in 1906, human bones and a flint point being 



108 Wisconsin Archeologist 

obtained. By 1907, frequent plowing of the land had already 
nearly obliterated it. An Indian camp site was also located 
here. Mr. Schoewe and others have collected here several 
celts and many flint points. This locality is on the east side 
of the Muskego-Wind Lake drainage canal. 

Denoon Lake 

This small lake lies less than two miles west of the extreme 
southern point of Muskego lake. The southern end of the 
lake extends into Norway Township of Racine County, a region 
rich in Indian evidences and implements. The Muskego west 
shore trail ran to this lake. 

21. Dance Ground. Mr. P. Kearney, a resident of this 
region, reported to the writer (July 6, 1907) that a former 
Potawatomi Indian dance ground was located on the G. Saul 
(now the F. Ziegler) farm, east of the mouth of a creek which 
flows into Denoon lake at its northwest side (SE 1 ^ Sec. 31). 
This attractive spot was in 1907 located in a pasture and was 
marked by a clump of oak trees. It commands a fine view 
across this small lake. 

22. Duclett Camp Site. In early days of settlement the 
Potawatomi camped on what is now the J. P. Duclett farm 
(NWJ/4 Sec. 31), at the northwest corner of Denoon lake. A 
trail from Long lake (Konongomong) in Racine county ran 
to this place. Flint chipping sites occur in the fields on this 
farm and some on the O. A. Larson farm adjoining it on the 
south. Many stone implements are reported to have been found 
on the Duclett farm previous to the writer's visit on July 6, 
1907. 

Flint workshop sites were formerly to be seen also on the 
Ellarson farm on the south side of the lake. Stone axes and 
flint implements have been found here. This place is in the 
NE% of Section 5, Norway Township, Racine County. 

ADDITIONAL 
MERTON TOWNSHIP 

Chipmunk Creek Camp Site. Mr. Peter Rasmussen reports 
(April 29, 1923) the existence of evidences of a former camp 
site in a cultivated field on his fa*rm on Chipmunk creek, at a 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 109 

distance of about one and one-half miles west of North lake, 
in Section 14. Flint and other stone implements have been 
collected here. 

OCONOMOWOC TOWNSHIP 

West Shore Camp Site. Indications of a former Indian camp 
site existed on the former Montgomery Ward farm, on the 
west shore of Lake La Belle, at Oconomowoc (SEi/4 Fract. Sec. 
30). This country estate is now owned by Mr. S. G. Courteen. 
It is located on Highway 19, a short distance west of the 
Oconomowoc city limits. 

Two socketted copper spear points, a grooved stone sinker, 
two stone celts and a number of flint implements have been 
collected here in recent years. 

PEWAUKEE TOWNSHIP 

Pewaukee Cache. A cache or hoard of knives made of blue 
hornstone was found at the eastern end of Pewaukee lake. 
Particulars concerning the date and exact manner of its find- 
ing are not obtainable. 

SUMMIT TOWNSHIP 

Of the two linear mounds located on the country estate of 
Mr. Gustave Pabst, on the north shore of Middle Genesee lake, 
one measures 60xl2 and the other 90x12 feet. They are on the 
lake shore a short distance southeast of his house. Mr. Pabst 
is preserving them. Dr. Frederick C. Rogers reports this in- 
formation, June 1, 1923. 

EARTHWORKS 

The great industry of the prehistoric Indians in constructing 
earthworks at and about the sites of many of their villages in 
Waukesha county is surprising. It was an undertaking which 
it must have required a long period to accomplish. The Pota- 
watomi may have constructed some of the conical mounds al- 
though no certain evidence of this has been encountered during 
the excavation or removal of any of these. These Indians and 
a few Menomini become residents of the county, as they did of 
other parts of eastern Wisconsin, at too recent a date to have 



110 Wisconsin Archcologist 

accomplished much in this direction. The construction of the 
mounds must be credited to an earlier people, possibly the 
Siuouan Winnebago. 

The number of Indian earthworks formerly existing in the 
sixteen townships of Waukesha county the records of 1 he Wis- 
consin Archeological Society show to have been 411. A small 
number have been reported as long destroyed and no certain 
information concerning their character is obtainable. These 
are not included in this count. Of the 411 mounds 174 were 
located in the eight northern and 2o(> in the eight southern 
townships. The total shows Waukesha to be one of the several 
richest counties in Wisconsin in the matter of the number of 
aboriginal earthworks within its boundaries. A count of the 
mounds in some other Wisconsin counties has recently been 
made : 

Sank 872 Kacine 171 

Ada ms 666 Winnebago 1 60 

Waushara .'>:>- Shehoygan 155 

Milwaukee 281 Fond du Lac 80 

Juneau 279 Manitowoc 71 

Trempealeau 275 Oneida 52 

Rock 270 

In Waukesha county the principal mound centers were at 
Waukesha, where the former presence of 56 mounds of all 
classes is recorded; in the region between Silver and the Ne- 
mahbin lakes, where 74 mounds were located; in the Fox river 
region about the Dewey group, at Pishtaka station, where 
there were 62 mounds; in the region about Big Bend, where 
there were 61, and in the Pewaukee lake and Pewaukee creek 
region, where there were 46. Smaller centers were at Mud or 
Mukwonago lake, where there were 26 mounds; along the 
Bark river between Ilartland and Merton, where there were 
20, and the Muskego lakes region where there were 18. 

Of the 411 mounds in the county 1S1 were conical or round 
mounds, 26 were of oval form, 123 were linear or embankment 
shaped earthworks and 78 effigy mounds. 

Of the effigy mounds, 26 were of the panther or water spirit 
type, 24 were of the turtle type, 5 were bird effigies, 2 (and 
probably 3) were bear mounds. The remainder were unidenti- 
fied animals. One of the most curious of the effigies was the 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 111 

so-ailed "Swan" mound at Lower Nemahbin lake. The largest 
number of effigies in any group occurred in the Dewey group 
at Pishtaka 10. In the School Section group at Pewaukee 
there were 9 effigies. 

Of 123 linear mounds all but six were of the straight, par- 
allel-sided form. Five others were of the well-known tapering 
form. Most interesting of the earthworks of this class is the 
remarkable tongs-shaped mound, known as the "Sawbuck, " and 
located at the Norwood electric line station near Oconomowoc. 

From 2 to 10 conical mounds occur in nearly every group in 
the county. The Cutler group at Waukesha consisted of 10 
of these mounds. In the Showerman group at Brookfield there 
were 11, in the East Shore group near Silver lake 19, and in 
the Lower Nemahbin group 7. There were 24 of these mounds 
in the six small groups at Mud or Mukwonago lake. 

Three earthen enclosures were located in Waukesha county. 
One of these was the so-called Brown enclosure, a circular 
earthwork formerly located at Marx pond, northwest of Okau- 
chee lake ; the horseshoe shaped earthwork on the Hollister 
farm, in Vernon township, and a fishhook shaped earthwork, 
in Group No. 1, at Big Bend. 

VILLAGE AND CAMP SITES 

The village and camp sites of Waukesha county have been 
largely exposed to view through the cultivation of the soil. 
In some instances the lands where these were located were 
broken up by the plows of the white settlers as early as 1836. 
The locations of others have become known through the spread 
of agriculture in the eighty-seven years since that date. Some 
of these sites were occupied by Potawatomi or Winnebago 
camp,s when the pioneer white settlers arrived, thus meagre 
accounts of their history have been preserved, and, in some 
instances, recorded. From some of these contact sites articles 
obtained by the natives from the white traders, such as iron 
axes, and hoes, fragments of brass and copper kettles, knives, 
iron arrow and spear points, gun parts and gun flints, awls, 
traps, glass beads, silver and brass jewelry, and other articles 
ha vi' been found. The history of other sites is unknown ex- 
cept as it may be reconstructed from the character of the stone 
and metal implements and ornaments, sherds of pottery vessels 



112 Wisconsin Archeologist 

and other articles exposed on or hidden beneath their sur- 
faces. Some sites appear to have been successively occupied 
by tribes of two distinct cultures. The Algonkin culture is 
represented in Wisconsin by slate and other stone gorgets, 
banner stones, bird stones and tubes; micmac pipes, platform 
pipes, pottery vessels with conical bases, with cord-marked and 
other ornamentation; stone pestles, copper implements of 
various kinds, grooved axes, some of them with a fluted orna- 
mentation, and flint arrow points of various shapes and si/es. 

The Siouan culture, not yet fully determined in Wisconsin. 
appears to embrace among others such materials as disk pipes, 
Siouan pipes, catlinite pendants, discoidals, cones, hemispheres^ 
earspools, some copper ornaments, antler points, flint pecking 
hammers, grooved club heads and some bone implements. A 
third culture, the Iroquoian appears to be represented in Wau- 
kesha county, by some bone implements, small triangular flint 
arrow points and fragments of pottery vessels having rounded 
bottoms, angular or overhanging rims. The stone celt is com- 
mon to all of these cultures. 

Nearly one hundred camp and village sites have been located 
in Waukesha county. Others remain to be located by those 
engaged in archeological research. Future investigation will 
very likely cause some of those now designated as camp sites 
to be known as village sites. One of the difficulties attending 
the making of collections of Indian implements from the sur- 
face of any of these sites is that during most months in the 
year they are either occupied by growing crops or obscured by 
snow. Village sites may be recognized by the presence on the 
surface of a field of numbers of fire cracked stones from former 
Indian fireplaces. These lined or lay in shallow bowl shaped 
cavities dug in the floor of the wigwam. Sometimes they are 
found undisturbed by the plow. When investigated they are 
occasionally found to be filled with ashes and charcoal, charred 
bones, discarded or broken implements and pieces of pottery. 
Small areas of blackened soil in fields also indicate the former 
location of aboriginal fires. .Refuse pits were sometimes dug 
on a village site to receive garbage, ashes from the wigwams 
and broken implements. In southern Wisconsin the presence 
of these is often indicated by bits of the valves of clam shel 
and splintered animal bones. On the surface of a village si 



11s 

, 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 113 

the manufacture of flint implements is indicated by the pres- 
ence of flint and quartzite chips, spalls, fragments and nodules 
or blocks, blanks and unfinished or broken and rejected points. 
Fragments of earthenware vessels, pebble hammer stones and 
lost or discarded implements are also found. When a village 
site is undisturbed by the plow, fireplaces, series of wild rice 
threshing pits, or provision caches, sometimes assist in its iden- 
tification. Burials are sometimes unearthed by the plow on 
these sites. 

Camp sites are of smaller extent than village sites and sur- 
face indications of their occupation are less numerous. Loca- 
tions of camp and village sites were generally on elevated, 
sheltered ground, near the banks of a stream or lake. Sandy 
soil was preferred. An abundant supply of spring water 
and of game and native vegetable food was important. 

The Indian village sites of Waukesha county deserve more 
careful attention and investigation than it has been possible to 
give them. Persons having such sites upon their property or 
in their vicinity, are asked to cooperate with the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society by making as complete as possible a 
collection of the implements and debris occurring on and 
beneath their surfaces. 

Burial Places 

Indian burials have been disturbed in the excavation of 
gravel deposits in various parts of Waukesha county. Some 
of these have been accompanied by interesting stone and metal 
implements and ornaments. As their disturbance has been 
purely accidental and by persons having little or no knowl- 
edge of archeological research, much information of value con- 
cerning these interments, is lost. Elsewhere in this report a 
description of a Potawatomi cemetery located at Muskego lake 
is given. Other, solitary burials have occasionally been disin- 
terred on village and camp sites by the plow. 

IMPLEMENTS 

Thousands of stone and hundreds of other implements used 
by the prehistoric and historic Indian residents of Waukesha 
county have been collected in the past eighty-five years from 
the sites of their camps and villages, and from other places. 



114 Wisconsin Archcologist 

Although collected from for many years many of the long 
known sites continue to yield interesting specimens. As new 
lands are brought under cultivation, new sites are being re- 
vealed and the boundaries of old sites extended. 

The late well-known collector of Indian artifacts, Frederick 
S. Perkins, of Burlington, was one of the first men in southern 
Wisconsin to undertake the systematic collection of speci- 
mens found on these sites. Waukesha county was one of his 
favorite hunting grounds for such specimens. With his horse 
and buggy he regularly visited the residents of various parts 
of the county acquiring by gift or purchase the specimens 
which the plow turned up in their fields. In 1878 he disposed 
of a large collection of these to the State Historical Society, 
and another to the Milwaukee Public museum, both of which con- 
tain many specimens from this county. Other collections were 
later disposed of to the Smithsonian Institution, to Beloit Col- 
lege and to Rev. E. C. Mitchell, a former collector of St. Paul. 
Minnesota. The latter are in the Mitchell collection in the i 
historical museum of the Minnesota Historical Society. 

Another early collector of more than local note was Dr. 
John A. Rice, of Merton. In more recent years well-known 
collectors of local Indian implements were Mr. Holland L. Porter 
and Mr. C. E. Wood of Mukwonago, Mr. Walter C. Ward and , 
Mr.. A. W. Robinson of Waukesha, Mr. E. J. lleming of Pewau- 
kee, Mr. George L. Boundey, Mr. Felix Scherffius, Mr. Van K. I 
Munger and Dr. F. ( '. Rogers of Oconomowoc and Mr. A. V. 
Drown of Summit. The late Mr. William II. Ellsworth of Mil- 
waukee also enriched his once great collection with many 
specimens, particularly from the Muskego Lake region. Mr. 
C. G. Schoewe, Mr. Rudolph Boettger, Mr. E. F. Richter and \ 
Rev. P. W. Roth, of Milwaukee, have also collected here. Many | 
other collections contain a few or many specimens gathered ] 
from the camp sites and fields of Waukesha county. 

Stone Implements 

Innumerable arrow and spearpoints made of both Wisconsin 
flint and from flint introduced in the course of aboriginal trade | 
with the natives of adjoining and distant states have been | 
collected from Waukesha county sites. A smaller number of I 
other implements in general domestic use, such as knives, 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 115 

scrapers, perforators, spades and hoes have been found on 
these places. The writer has visited sites at Muskego lake and 
elsewhere, where, according to the owners, a half bushel or 
more of flint implements have been collected in the course 
of years of cultivation of the soil. Arrow and spear points 
made of the favorite blue hornstone, chalcedony and quartzite 
have also been found. 

Of the chipped flint implements arrow points are by far the 
most numerous on all sites formerly inhabited by the Indians. 
The number of perfect specimens of these in most collections 
is due to the fact that only these have been picked up by col- 
lectors, the broken specimens being generally permitted to lie 
on the surface. Flint blanks have also been quite generally 
disregarded. Of the arrow points the stemmed, notched and 
triangular forms are the most numerous. Barbed, serrated 
and bevelled forms are rather rare. Spear points are far less 
numerous than arrow points. Some large and finely chipped 
specimens have been found. Scrapers, knives and perforators 
occur in smaller numbers. Several caches or hoards of small 
numbers of flint blanks have been found in Waukesha county. 
It is thought that these were buried in the soil by their Indian 
owners to preserve them against possible loss or to keep the 
material in a workable condition. The manufacture of flint 
implements appears to have been carried on to a greater or less 
extent on most former camp and village sites in the county. 

The flint implements of Waukesha county are worthy of 
greater attention and study than has been given to them. 

Grooved stone axes and stone celts or hatchets have been 
found on nearly every village site. They appear to have been 
in quite common use. Several adze-celts are among the im- 
plements of this class. A notched axe, found at Mukwonago, 
is in the State Historical Museum, at Madison. A fluted stone 
axe in the A. S. Mitchell collection was found at Pewaukee. A 
long-bladed axe with a spirally fluted poll came from the north 
shore of Pewaukee lake. j is now in the W. H. Ellsworth 
collection, in the Logan^F ^seum, at Beloit. Another fluted 
axe from Waukesha c^Rrity is in the same collection. This 
had four faint grooves on one side of the blade and one on the 
other side. A fine specimen of the rare long-bladed adze- 
form axes, from the banks of the Oconomowoc river, is in the 
Historical Museum. 



116 Wisconsin Archeologist 

Three stone chisel-shape celts have been collected. Two are 
narrow and rectangular in form and come from Indian sites 
near Merton. A third, from Menomonee township, is a long, 
narrow triangular specimen. A stone gouge was found on 
the shores of Lake La Belle, at Oeonomowoc, and another at 
Bass bay, on the north shore of Muskego lake. A large and 
fine triangular stone adze was obtained from Rocky point, 
at Pewaukee lake. 

Of stone spuds a fine specimen was in the Lapham collection 
which was destroyed years ago in the burning of Science 
Hall, at the University of Wisconsin. The blade of another 
was collected from the former Dr. J. A. Rice farm, at Merton. 

A number of rude stone blanks, which may have served as 
hoe blades, have been found on a site on the bank of the 
Fox river, in Vernon township. The only notched stone hoe 
known to have been found in \Vaukesha county was in the 
collection of Mr. A. S. Mitchell. 

Several grooved stone sinkers have been found, one of these 
on the shore of Lake La IJelle. A single notched stone sinker 
comes from the north shore of Muskego lake. 

Stone balls were collected by Mr. iM-ederick 8. Perkins from 
Indian sites at liig l>eiid, Ottawa and Monterey. IVhble 
hammers! ones have been found in larger or smaller numbers 
on many sites throughout the county. Some of these have 
finger-holds. 

Such generally common objects on Indian village sit; 
grinding stones or smoothers, arrowshaft grinders, anvil stones 
and flint pecking hammers have received but little attention 
from collectors. No stone mortars, pestles, mullers, pitted 
stones, reamers or Hint saws have been reported from \Vau- 
kesha county. 

Pipes, Ornaments an<l Ceremonials 

Of stone ornaments and ceremonials the Wisconsin An-he- 
ological Society has records of the finding of about 50 speci- 
mens in Waukesha county. These are in both public, and 
private collections in the state. Among them are :j bird stones, 
a bar amulet, 3 banner stones, 3 plummets, a cone, 6 discoidals, 
2 L-shaped ceremonials, 14 gorgets and (> tubes. 



Waukesha County Southern Townships 117 

Two of the bird stones come from Menomonee Falls. Both 
accompanied Indian burials. One is in the Ringeisen collec- 
tion at Milwaukee and the other in the Milwaukee Public 
Museum. Nearly all of these specimens are objects known to 
have been made and used by the Algonkian Indians. The 
greater number of the recorded specimens come from the 
region between Waukesha and Oconomowoc. Others were 
found about Menomonee Falls and Muskego. 

The Indian pipes collected from Waukesha county include 
examples of the kinds classified as the disk, Micmac, platform 
(both straight and curved base), vase shaped, handled, Siouan 
and pottery, a rather wide range of forms. Only about 15 
specimens from this county are contained in Wisconsin collec- 
tions. 

There would probably be many more if collectors had paid 
any attention to gathering pieces of broken specimens such 
as are not infrequently found on Indian sites. 

Copper Implements 

About 400 implements made of Lake Superior copper have 
been collected from Indian village sites in Waukesha county. 
Of this number a few have accompanied burials in gravel 
knolls, none are known to have been obtained during the ex- 
ploration of mounds. No evidence of the actual fabrication 
of copper implements has been found on any of the village 
or camp sites. 

Of the 400 specimens, 200 are preserved in the museums at 
Madison, Milwaukee and Beloit and the remainder in public 
collections in Chicago, New York City, St. Paul and Washing- 
ton, and in private collections in Wisconsin and other states. 

The specimens in public and private collections in Wiscon- 
sin, according to the records of the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society, are as follows : 

147 Arrow and spearpoints 6 Awls 

12 Knives 2 Pikes 

9 Spuds 1 Harpoon 

9 Axes 4 Crescents 
6 Chisels 

Other specimens include copper beads and pendants and five 
pieces of copper which show indications of cutting and ham- 
mering. 



118 Wisconsin Archcologist 

To date Lisbon township has produced the greatest number 
of copper implements. Of forty of these the majority have 
come from Indian sites and other lands in the region about 
Sussex and Templeton. In Merton township of a total of 
26 copper implements 20 are from the Bark river region 
near Merton. In Pewaukee township 27 coppers have been 
found on sites and fields near the shores of Pewaukee lake. 
Two copper axes were found in 1898 accompanying an Indian 
burial in a gravel pit at Pewaukee. The crania had been 
stained by close contact with the axes. 

The Fox river region west of Big Bend in Vernon county 
has produced 20 specimens. Fifteen implements in collections 
are from the Muskcgo lake region, twenty from Oconomowoc 
township, chiefly from the shores of Lac La Belle. Seven are 
known to have been found at AVaukesha. 

In Menomonee township all of the 13 coppers in museums 
come from the region about Menomonee Falls. Five copper 
implements are from Alukwonago. Might from near Brook- 
field in Brookfiehl township, and *J from New Berlin township. 
Three copper spearpoints and a string of copper beads and 
pendants have come from Delafield township. As compared 
with some other eastern Wisconsin counties the number of 
copper implements is small. The spearpoints collected are 
largely of the forms provided with a socket. A few are of 
the flat-stemmed, serrated flat stemmed, barbed and spatulate 
forms. 

The absence in collections of knives provided with a handle 
socket, of conical points, fishhooks, scrapers, needles, and of 
the very small awls is noticeable. Brads are not numerous. 
No copper rings or other ornaments other than crescents and 
pendants have been found. 

The absence of copper implements in the mounds in the 
county which have been explored or removed is significant. 
The Algonkian sites in Eastern Wisconsin have produced the 
majority of copper implements. In Waukesha county the 
representatives of this linguistic stock were thr Potawatomi 
and Menomonee. These tribes were comparatively recent 
occupants. 



Waukcsha County Southern Toivnships 119 

Other Objects 

Very few specimens made of bone, horn, antler or animal 
teeth from Waukesha county are to be seen in collections. 
This may be due to the fact that they have not been very 
carefully collected because of a lack of knowledge of their 
importance and interest. 

An antler tool, possibly a punch or flint flaker, comes from 
the bank of the Oconomowoc river, at the foot of Lake La 
Belle. Another comes from Menomonee township. Several 
bear's tooth ornaments have been collected. No implements 
or ornaments made of lead or hematite are known from this 
county. Very few shell objects have been found. Iron and 
other objects obtained by the Indians from the white traders 
are rare in collections. Some are mentioned elsewhere in 
this report. A large iron spearpoint provided with a socket 
was found at Muskego lake. 

Earthenware 

No perfect earthenware vessels have been collected. Frag- 
ments of broken vessels have been found on some sites. These 
potsherds should be collected and presented to one of the 
several larger Wisconsin museums in order that the materials 
and methods employed in their manufacture and their orna- 
mentation may be studied. 

In Acknowledgment 

In closing this report on the Indian history and remains in 
Waukesha county the writer desires to acknowledge the as- 
sistance recently given particularly by Dr. Frederick C. Rogers, 
Mr. Willoughby, M. Babcock, Jr., curator of the museum of 
the Minnesota Historical Society, and the Messrs. 0. L. Hoi- 
lister, E. F. Richter, C. G. Schoewe, Rudolph Boettger and 
others in giving information concerning the Indian arti-facts 
in their own and other collections. 



Cfte 

Mltsconstn 
3 r c f) r o ( o g i s t 



falg 1923 



LOWER ROCK RIVER 

WINNEBAGO VILLAGES 




^ V.- 7.7Z7-LT ZT 

A ~. ^~r;. ~ ~ j~~ L ~ _ 



Srcfjeologtcal &octetp 

;fflilumuUee, 



Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities. 



OFFICERS 

PRESIDENT 

Alanson Skinner 



Dr. E. J. W. Notz 
W. H. Vogel 
A. T. Newman 



VICE-PRESIDENTS 

Dr. S. A. Barrett 
Dr. F. C. Rogers 



Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand 
H. H. Smith 
C. G. Schoewe 



Dr. Geo. L. Collie 
A. P. Kannenberg 
Robert P. Ferry 



DIRECTORS 

H. E. Cole 
E. F. Richter 



Mrs. H. A. Main 
Mrs. H. E. Koerner 
Joseph Ringeisen, Jr. 



TREASURER 

Dr. William H. Brown 



SECRETARY 

Charles Edward Brown 



COMMITTEES 

STATE SURVEY H. E. Cole, Dr. A. Gerend, Geo. R. Fox, Dr. W. G. 
McLachlan, Rev. F. S. Dayton, and Executive Board. 

MOUND PRESERVATION Dr. F. C. Rogers, Dr. John J. D. Mack, 
Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, W. C. English, Louise P. Kellogg, Mrs. 
Angle K. Main, Dr. M. E. Diemer, C. T. Olen, O. W. Malmgren, Mrs. 
F. R. Melcher, Rudolph Kuehne, W. A. Adams, R. S. Van Handel, 
and Vetal Winn. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. George L. Collie, Frank G. Logan, Mrs. 
Bessie E. Koerner, E. P. Hamilton, Mrs. H. A. Olson, Dr. Orin 
Thompson, Huron H. Smith, C. J. Koehn, Geo. Wright, D. A. 
Whelan and R. M. Dessereau. 

MEMBERSHIP Dr. H. L. Tilsner, William Haertel, G. R. Zlllisch, 
Rev. M. Staehling, Dr. W. H. Brown, Arthur Gerth, Dr. A. F. Heis- 
ing, P. J. Zuegge, Rev. Christ. Hjermstadt, Mrs. Ellen Butterfield, 
Rev. J. H. McManus, R. Boett,ger and E. J. Gerrits. 

MAN MOUND PARK W. W. Gilman, Miss Emma Richmond and E. 
A. Gilman. 

AZTALAN MOUND PARK R. P. Ferry, C. E. Brown, Dr. S. A. Barrett. 
Mrs. H. A. Main, David Atwood and Dr. John J. D. Mack. 

PUBLICITY A. O. Barton, Mary E. Stewart and R. K. Coe. 



SESSIONS 

These are held in the Lecture Room in the Library-Museum Build- 
ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 



MEMBERSHIP FEES 
Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $.50 Institutional Members, $1.50 



All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison. 
Wisconsin. 



CONTENTS 



Vol. 2, No. 3, New Series 
ARTICLES 



Page 



Winnebago Villages and Chieftains of the Lower Rock River Re- 
gion, N. W. Jipson 125 

Rainy Lakes Indians, Albert B. Reagan 140 

Sauk War Bundles, Alanson Skinner 148 

A Prehistoric Copper Mine, Geo. Brinton Phillips 151 

Archeological Notes 155 

ILLUSTRATIONS 
Little Winneshiek and Wife Frontispiece 

Plate Facing Page 

1. Winneshiek Wakon-ja-ko-ga 132 

2. Indian Pictographs, Picture Island, Nett Lake, Minnesota 146 

3. Copper 152 




Little Winneshiek and Wife 



Published Quarterly by the Wisconsin Areheological Society 

Vol. 2 MADISON, WIS., July, 1923 Xo. 3 

New Series 



WINNEBAGO VILLAGES AND CHIEFTAINS OF THE 
LOWER ROCK RIVER REGION 

N. W. JIPSON, M. D. 

In the Seventeenth Century, the Winnebago Indians were dis- 
covered by the Jesuit missionaries on Lake Winnebago, and 
their traditions say their original home was on the so-called 
Red Banks, on the border of Green Bay. 

At an early day, they found their way along the Fox and Wis- 
consin rivers, where they established villages, and eventually 
along the Rock River and its tributaries, including the Four 
Lakes. 

They were said to have emigrated southward along the Rock 
River in 1728, and in 1742 one-half of the tribal members were 
said to be on Green Bay and the other half on Riviere la Roche 
(W. H. C. XVII-400), and, in 1777, they were said to have a 
village "two leagues from the Mississippi on a small stream 
called La Roch," (same XVIII-366). 

Winnebago tradition places their Rock River residence at a 
very early date. Chief White Breast, who, in 1829, had two 
villages on Sugar River, told his grandson, Ely Rasdell, that 
both his father and grandfather resided on Lake Koshkonong, 
on Rock River, which, certainly, would make their removal to 
that point sometime previous to the end of the Eighteenth 
Century. 

The treaty of 1825 recognized the Winnebago title to the 
territory containing the mines which were the richest in lead 
ore. The boundary line was on the ridge separating the tribu- 
taries of the Rock from those of the Mississippi River, and the 
Rock River formed the eastern boundary of the 
country. 



126 Wisconsin Archcologist V. 2 v No. 3 

That the Winnebago loved the Rock River is a matter of 
common knowledge. " Its waters were well stocked with fish, 
water fowl of various species were plentiful, fur bearing ani- 
mals dwelt along its shores. 

In 1824, Thomas Forsyth, Indian Agent at Fort Armstrong, 
(Rock Island), wrote: "On Rocky River there are twelve or 
fourteen Winnebago villages. The principal one is called 
Cftsh-co-iivny, and lies about forty-five miles west from Mill- 
H'dkic on Lake Michigan. On both sides of Rocky River, the 
land is low and full of marshes and sands, and makes it very 
disagreeable to travel by land; particularly after the first ninety 
miles from the mouth of Rocky River. Indeed, it is one con- 
tinual swamp, marsh, and pond to its source, and all the travel- 
ling is done by means of canoes." 

In 1.S2."), we arc told by Maximilian. Prince of Weid, "on Rock 
River, the Indians caught 1 '$0,000 mnskrats. The next year's 
catch was about half that number. Within two years after- 
ward the muskrat was nearly exterminated on the Rock River 
field." (Steven's St. Louis.) 

Although varying with the seasons, the prices which the In- 
dians received for muskrat skins, during the years from 1800 
to 1832, averaged from 22 to 2."> cents each. At various times. 
traders were licensed to deal with the Indians at (Jrand Detour. 
which appears to have been an especially desirable point, and 
at various points along the river. 

For various reasons, we will consider Koshkonong the farthest 
north of the Lower Rock River Winnebago villages, and will 
begin with that village and at tern pi to irive a sketch of each 
village in rotation as we proceed down the Rock River. 

That, at a very early date, Koshkonong was an important 
point and a gathering place for the Winnebago is well attested. 
We have given Thomas Forsyth 's statement, made in 1824, and 
p i-o v ing the importance and size of this village. The same year, 
Major Henry B. Brevoort, Indian Agent at Green Bay, gave 
the number of Winnebago at Kuskawoinanque as two hundred, 
and he calls this village "great village of the Winnebago." If 
this evidence is considered insufficient, we have other proof. 
After the Winnebago disturbance of 1827, the white settlers 
of Northern Illinois and Southern Wisconsin feared another 
outbreak and Alexander Wolcott, Indian Agent at Chicago, 



Lozver Rock River 127 



wrote to the Secretary of War concerning the attitude of the 
Winnebago, and urged the reinforcement of the Fort Dearborn 
garrison, for, said he: "Should hostilities be commenced and 
this post left ungarrisoned, this settlement must necessarily be 
abandoned. It is but eighty miles distant from Koshkonong the 
gathering place of the Rock River Indians (italics ours) and 
can be reached by them in two days," (20th Cong. Doc. No. 
277.) 

Winnebago tradition asserts that Koshkonong was their im- 
portant Rock River village, and Ely Rasdell, whose father, Abel 
Rasdell, married a daughter of Chief White Breast, noted Rock 
River Chieftain, informs us that it was an important point. 
He also says that White Breast's father was called Kee-zuntsh- 
ga, meaning soft-shelled turtle, and his grandfather was called 
Ma-sho-pa-ka, meaning grizzly bear head. Both lived at Kosh- 
konong and Soft Shelled Turtle was a physician. He was said 
to have been possessed of such professional skill that all of his 
patients recovered, and there was no graveyard at Koshkonong. 

In 1829, the famous chieftain, White Crow, presided over 
this village, and that year he w r as visited by the noted Potawa- 
tomi chieftain, Shaubena, who, as a trusted messenger, asked 
him if he intended to participate in the premeditated hostile 
Indian movement against the whites. In 1829, John H. Kinzie, 
in his official list of Winnebago villages and chieftains, gave 
the population of Koshkonong as fifty-seven. It had dwindled 
from the two hundred as given by Brevoort in 1824. 

As I will shortly explain, there are reasons 'for believing that 
the popularity and great personal following of AVhite Crow 
had much to do with the large population of Koshkonong. In 
the first mentioned year, Morah-tshay-kaw, the Traveller, other- 
wise known at Little Priest, became the head chieftain. His 
son, also called Little Priest, whose prowess as an aid of the 
United States Government in the war upon the Sioux Indians 
has often been described, was born and raised at Koshkonong. 

During the Black Hawk war, Oliver Armel, a Frenchman 
married to a Winnebago woman, was sent by General Henry 
Dodge to learn the intentions of the Winnebago at Koshkonong. 
He reported them as living in a state of fear bordering on terror 
and so nearly starved that they were living 011 grass and roots. 
At this time, some of the Indians were determined to kill Armel, 



128 Wisconsin Archeoloc/ist Y. 2, Xo. 3 

savin*? that, all white men, whether French, English, or Ameri- 
can, looked alike to them, and they were determined to kill 
all who wore hats. He was saved by Wliitc Crow. 

In passing, it may he well to discuss the derivation of the 
work Koshkonong. It is not a Winnebago derivative. The 
Winnebago always speak of it as Day (or Tay)-ma-ha, or Mud 
Lake. As to the word Koshkonong, after considering the vari- 
ous explanations of its origin, the Rev. E. P. Wheeler, an un- 
questioned authority on Algonquin place names, discarding such 
words as, "The Lake We Live On," "A Frightful Place,*' 
"The Place Where He (Jot Away." etc., says that the explana- 
tion given by the old Beloit trader, Thiebeau, is probably the 
best. The Algonquin for the place of shaving is " Kosh-ke-bah- 
/o-nong. " If we allow for the usual shortening of Indian words 
by dropping their middle syllables, we have Kosh-ke-nong. 

Passing alonjr toward the mouth of Hock River, we next reach 
Catfish Village, which. Kin/ie tells us. had two lodges and 
thirty-eight inhabitants. The exact location of this village is 
unknown to me. but it was probably near the mouth of the 
Catfish River. Round Rock Village, said by Dr. Lyman S. 
Draper to have been the village at the site of the present city 
of -lanesville. had two lodges and thirty-one people, presided 
over by Little Chief. The Winnebago name for this village is 
E-nee-poro-poro. 

Farther along, and, according to Kin/ie 's figures, only a 
short distance from Turtle Village, we find Standing Post Vil- 
lage, with one lodge and seventeen people, rule(l by Coming 
Lightning/ 

Now we arrive at Turtle Village on Turtle Creek, which the 
Winnebago called Ke-chunk-nee-shun-nuk-ra. In 1822 Thomas 
Forsyth, writing to Governor Cass, in relation to Indian hos- 
tilities toward the lead miners at Galena, said: ''In my opinion. 
nothing is to be apprehended from any of the Indians in my 
agency (Fort Armstrong), but I cannot say as much for the 
Winnebago who have a village about sixty or seventy miles 
east of the lead mines on a branch which falls into the northern 
fork of Rocky River and is called P<tu*talon." While Forsyth 's 
statement is not perfectly clear, he must have meant Turtle 
Village. The northern fork of the Rock River must be the 
branch which starts the farthest north. He could hardly have 



Lower Rock River 129 



meant the mouth of Sugar Creek ; as Keating', describing Major 
Long's visit to that locality in 1823 tells us of the mixed tribes 
of Indians living there but does not speak of a large Winnebago 
village. Undoubtedly, at that time Turtle Village was second 
in population to Koshkonong. The proof of that statement has 
already been given. However, in 1829, Kinzie's list gives Turtle 
Village a population of six hundred Winnebago occupying 
thirty-five lodges, while the population of Koshkonong had 
dropped from the two hundred assigned to it by Kinzie to fifty- 
seven people. 

White Crowy the diplomatic genius and born leader of the 
Winnebago, now presided over this village. Many -aspersions, 
most or all of which are entirely unwarranted, have been cast 
at the memory of this chieftain. He was said to have been pres- 
ent at the Council of the Pour Lakes called to ascertain the dis- 
position of the Winnebago Indians during the Black Hawk War, 
and, on that occasion, to have used his influence in a manner 
derogatory to the whites, but the official report of that meet- 
ing shows that he was not present. After he had secured the 
Hall girls from the Potawatomi, who held them subsequent to 
their capture in the Black Hawk War, and delivered them safe 
and sound to the whites, General Dodge said to him, "Your 
treatment of the girls was, as admitted by the girls themselves, 
noble, kind, and humane. No man, either civilized or savage 
could have acted with more delicacy of feeling that you have 
done on this occasion." The statement he is said to have made 
on the aforesaid occasion, derogatory to the white soldiers, and 
his subsequent arrest is offset by a letter of Henry Gratiot's 
stating that the arrest was unwarranted and the result of pop- 
ular clamor, which leads to the conclusion that he did not make 
the disparaging remarks. The statement that he attempted to 
lead the white army into a trap was based wholly on the hys- 
terical fears of the white settlers that something of the kind 
was about to happen. There is not sufficient time for a full 
discussion of this subject; suffice it to say that after an exten- 
sive search of the official Indian records, I can find no docu- 
mentary evidence to prove that White Crow was anything but 
a loyal friend to the white man, and I am convinced that, in 
common with Shaubena, the well-known Potawatomi chieftain, 
the' memorv of White Crow should be cherished as a true friend 



130 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2, No. 3 

of the pioneer settlers with whom he came in contact. At the 
Paririe du Chien Council of 1828, White Crow was the chief 
orator for the Winnebago. In one of his speeches he made this 
assertion to Governor Cass : "Father! Since I have known 
good from evil, no white man can say I have done him harm. 
I speak before the Great Spirit who knows what I say. I hold 
you fast by the hand." He prefaced one of his speeches by 
the following remarks to Governor Cass: "Father! You who 
are before us, we look upon as we do the Great Spirit. He has 
placed a pen in your hand ; he has made your skin white. But 
he has made us red, poor, and objects of pity." 

At the annuity payment of 1832, held at Fort Winnebago, 
Governor Porter asked the Winnebago to deliver to the white 
army those of their number who had assisted the Sank and Fox 
in the Black Hawk War. He accused them of various acts of 
dishonesty, such as lyiim and stealing provisions from the set- 
tlers. Replying, among other statements, White Crow naively 
said: "We thought it was only us who were foolish and could 
tell lies; but I find that some of you whites are as good at it 
as many of our young men. Many of the whites are as bad 
as we are. They took our corn and many articles as they passed 
our villages, and have even taken up the dead that were buried 
and took off their blankets, etc., in which they were wrapped." 
(23d Cong. Indian Removals, IV.) 

That White Crow was not an hereditary chieftain, but by 
sheer force of personality and merit became the chief spokes- 
man of the Winnebago. may indicate the reason why Turtle 
Village had a large population in 1829, while the population 
of Koshkonong had diminished; simply showing the large per- 
sonal following of people who desired him to be with their 
chieftain. 

During the Black Hawk War, although Kinxic's annuity list 
shows him to have been living at Turtle Village, White 
Crow was not the principal chieftain. Perhaps the duties in- 
cident to his tribal leadership had caused him to resign as village 
chieftain. Under date of December 22, 1832, Henry Gratiot, 
sub-Indian agent writing to Governor Cass, designated Whirling 
Thundred as head chief of Turtle Village. Whirling Thunder 
was said to be a man of great reputation for sagacity and wis- 
dom in council. At the close of the Black Hawk War, Whirl- 
ing Thunder, with a large band of his Kock River followers, 



Lower Rock River 131 



went to Iowa county, Wisconsin. A letter from Henry Dodge, 
Indian Agent, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, stated he 
was there with a relative, John Dougherty, a white trader, 
formerly of "Old Sugar River Digging," who had married a 
near relative of Whirling Thunder. Whirling Thunder lived 
to an advanced age and died in Nebraska. 

Before considering the Winnebago villages which are known 
to have existed farther down the Rock River, it may be well 
to consider those at the lower Pecatonica and its tributary, the 
Sugar. In 1823, Major Long, travelling up the Rock River from 
Kishwaukee, reached a small stream called the " Pektanons, a 
diminutive of Pektanon, a neighboring stream into which it dis- 
charges itself a few miles below. ' ' The Indian Village, situated 
on the main stream, consisted of seven permanent and three 
temporary lodges, inhabited principally by the Sauk, Fox, 
Winnebago, Menomini and Potawatomi. Their chief was a 
Sauk, and his name was Wabetega. (Keating, p. 180.) 

The region about the mouth of the Pecatonica became a noted 
gathering place of the Rock River Winnebago. The well-known 
trader, Stephen Mack, lived and had his place of business at 
Bird's Grove, which was close by. In 1829, Mack married a 
half-breed Winnebago woman, daughter of the Blacksmith, a 
Winnebago who lived at the Four Lakes. While it has been 
stated that Mack's refusal to sell liquor and firearms to the 
Indians, was productive of ill-feeling, there is evidence that his 
place was much frequented by the Winnebago and Potawatomi, 
and his influence over the Indians frequently prevented the 
shedding of blood. 

In 1831, Henry Gratiot, writing to William Clark, Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, suggested paying the Winnebago 
annuities at the mouth of the ' ' Pe-ke-tol-e-ke. " ''There." lie 
says, "they hold their councils and from there they start on 
their winter hunt. Their women and children could go up in 
their canoes and take care, at least, of their own share of the 
salt and money." This letter was in the nature of a protest 
at the drunkenness and profligacy noticed among the Winne- 
bago whose annuities were paid at Fort Winnebago. and it 
brought a hot retort from John H. Kinzie, agent at the Fort, 
who charged Henry Gratiot with trying to prejudice the In- 



132 Wisconsin Archcoloc/ist V. 2, Xo. 3 

clians against the agency at Fort Wimiebago, and having the 
annuities paid at a point near the trading: house in which 
Colonel Gratiot had a financial interest. Kinzie denied the 
statement that the Rock River Winnebago \vere in the habit 
of holding their autumn meeting at the mouth of the Pe-ke- 
tol-e-ke, preparatory to starting on their winter hunt, saying 
it was only the lower Rock River Winnebago who thus met. 

Thanks to the affidavit of -lames P. Dixon, we shall be able 
to state the location of the Winnebago winter hunting gronn:ls. 
While Henry (Jratiot's agency headquarters are said to have 
been at Gratiot 's Grove, in his correspondence he frequently 
mentioned his "agency at the Mouth of Sugar Creek." (See 
also letter of I). M. Parkinson in the Mineral Point paper. 
Miner's Free Press, September 1.~>. 1S40.) 

Thus we can infer that the mouth of the Pecatonica and the 
neighboring region, including the mouth of Sugar River, at 
one time constituted an important rende/vous for the Winne- 
bago. 

While the mouth of the Pecatonica and region round about 
was important as the gathering place of the Winnebago, Kinzie 
mentions only one Winnebago village at the mouth of the Sugar, 
and that a small one presided over by Mounk-ska-ka, or White 
Breast. Tli is village contained one lodge of twenty-three peo- 
ple. Farther up the Sugar was another of White Breast's vil- 
lages containing nine lodges and one hundred and sixty-seven 
people. This village was at about the location of the present city 
of Brodhead. Curiously enough, the Winnebago name of this 
village, Xa-hoo-rah-roo-hah-rah, means sturgeon's spawn. Dur- 
ing the Black Hawk War. White Breast is said to have acted 
as a scout for the American army. Something of his biography 
has been given, lie was with his tribe in the Blue Earth Coun- 
try and died just before they left Mankato for I'sher's Land 
ing, Dakota. White Breast's daughter married Abel Rasdell, 
a white settler of the Four Lakes country, and a son, Mr. Ely 
Rasdell, is now living in Winnebago, Xebraska. 

There was one well-known chieftain who resided on the banks 
of the Pecatonica near the site of the present city of Freeport. 
Concerning this chief and his family relationship, authorities 
have been confused. The Elder Winneshiek, who presided over 
the Pecatonica village, was called by his people, Ma-wa-ra-ga, 



Lower Rock River 133 



meaning muddy. The name Winneshiek is an Algonquin equi- 
valent of the Winnebago name Ma-wa-ra-ga. Winne means 
dirty or brackish as applied to water, and shiek (properly zick) 
means a growth. This name is frequently applied to the yellow 
birch tree, as the bark of this tree has a dirty or smoky color. 
(Rev. E. P. Wheeler.) As applied to Winneshiek, this name 
undoubtedly refers to the beard which was an hereditary char- 
acteristic of the male members of the Winneshiek family, having 
been posse^ rtQ d by the elder Winneshiek, his son, Coming Thun- 
der, and grandson, John Winneshiek, of Black River Falls, 
Wisconsin. 

John Blackhawk, a grandson of Chief Coming Thunder, says 
there is - admixture of white blood in the Winneshiek family, 
which was related to the well-known French Winnebago Decora 
family, and he thus accounts for the existence of the beard in 
the various members of his family. The elder member of the 
family, Ma-wa-ra-ga, is said by his descendants to have been 
born 011 Doty Island in 1777. His son, Coming Thunder, was 
born at Portage about the year 1812. The elder Winneshiek 
became very bitter toward the whites. This attitude was due 
to the fact that the white miners trespassed on the mining lands, 
title to which had been given the Winnebago by the treaty of 
1825. 

Previous to the so-called Winnebago war of 1827, Winne- 
shiek met John Connolly, Indian Agent at Galena, complained 
bitterly of the duplicity of the whites, and uttered what, in the 
light of subsequent developments was considered an ominous 
threat against the white settlers. Undoubtedly his hatred was 
augmented by the fact that his son, Coming Thunder, was cap- 
tured at bis Pecatonica village by the white army under Colonel 
Dodge and held for some time as a hostage. 

While the prevalent opinion gives White Cloud, the so-called 
Winnebago Prophet, credit for Winneshiek 's participation in 
the Black Hawk War on the side of the Sac and Fox, there are 
reasons for believing that Winneshiek 's hatred for the whites 
prompted him to persuade White Cloud to join Black Hawk in 
a desperate effort to force the whites off from the land claimed 
by the Indians. 

As there has been some misunderstanding, let it be distinctly 
understood that Winneshiek the younger, otherwise called Wan- 



134 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2. No. 3 

kon-ja-ko-ga, or Coming Thunder, was the man who, in Minne- 
sota, was made head chief of the Winnebago by order of the 
Tinted States government, and that the elder Winneshiek left 
the Pecatonica. region soon after or during the war of 1827. and 
died in 188") near Hokah, Minnesota. 

Notes on Stephenson county, Illinois, by William J. Johnston. 
a copy of which can be found in the Chicago Historical Library, 
tell us the lodge poles and other equipment which marked the 
site of Winneshiek 's village were in evidence when the first 
white settlers located at the site of the present city of Freeport. 

Coming Thunder was a man who stood very high with his 
own people, as well as with his white acquaintances. As it docs 
not properly belong here, I will not attempt to give a sketch 
of his last years in Minnesota, his removal to Usher's Landing 
in Dakota, his flight down the Missouri River, and his death 
in 1864 among the Iowa Indians in northeastern Kansas. lie 
was a man of much natural ability, but his treatment by the 
whites made him an agnostic concerning the white man's religion 
and institutions. lie was always a so-called blanket Indian, 
and did not take kindly to the customs of the white man. Much 
more could be said about the Winneshieks, but the short space 
allotted for this paper forbids. 

Returning to the main branch of the Rock River, we continue 
our course down stream. At Kishwaukee, we find Sycamore 
village, with (in 1S12<). Kin/ie) three lodges and forty-eight 
people. As early as 1ST 4, Thomas Forsyth, in a letter spoke 
of the Potawatomi. Menomini and Winnebago as residing in 
the neighborhood of the Cottonwood River, meaning the Kish- 
waukee; and James P. Dixon, in an affidavit, speaks of the 
village at the mouth of the Kishwaukee River, about thirty- 
five miles up the Rock River from Dixon. 

The next point which we will consider is Grand Detour. It 
was the opinion of my friend, the late William D. Barge, a man 
who was familiar with many details of Northern Illinois history, 
that a Winnebago village had existed at Grand Detour. This 
opinion was based on the statements of early Grand Detour 
settlers that, in an early day, the evidence of a former Indian 
village could be seen, just inside the river bend at that point. 
The statement contained in Henry Gratiot's journal of April 
17, 1832 (I. 0. F.) tells us that in company with twenty-six 



Lower Rock River 135 



Winnebago he "descended the Rock River" (from Turtle Vil- 
lage) "fifty miles, to Zharros Village * * * descended sixty 
miles to Ogees Ferry" (Dixon) "descended the river forty or 
fifty miles to the Prophet's Village." Chief Jarro was one of 
John Dixon 's steady customers, and his village could not have 
been far away. Certainly, there is presumptive evidence that 
Jarro 's village was at Grand Detour, although the affidavit of 
James P. Dixon fails to record that fact : 

That the trading house of the old French employee of the 
American Fur Company, La Sallier, was located at Grand De- 
tour seems to be an assumed fact. William D. Barge notes the 
fact in his * ' Early Lee County ' ' and gives proof of the existence 
of this trading house, and also of the discovery of its remains, 
decaying logs, cellar, etc., by Joseph Crawford in 1835. In 
my investigations I unearthed information showing conclusively 
that the noted Winnebago chieftain, Baptiste La Sallier, who 
became head chief of the tribe by order of the United States 
government, after the removal of Winneshiek in 1859, was a 
grandson of the old French trader. This fact is attested by 
several of the descendants, who are now living in Nebraska. 
Baptiste La Sallier is known to have spent his early years at 
Turtle Village. An affidavit states that he was a brother of 
Mrs. Joseph Thibeau. He was the son of Joseph La Sallier 
and a Winnebago woman, while Joseph La Sallier was the son 
of the old trader, Pierre, or St. Pierre La Sallier. 

Arriving at the city of Dixon, but reserving for the last 
portion of his paper a consideration of John Dixon and his 
relations, with the Winnebago, we will briefly notice the Pro- 
phet's Village, called by Kinzie, Sugar Camp, and the so-called 
Winnebago Prophet-^White Sky, White Cloud, Fair Sky being- 
some of the names by which he was known to the early Indian 
officials. In 1829, Kinzie gives the village a population of 
ninety-eight with six lodges. James P. Dixon (in his affidavit) 
states that in the winter of 1832 he stayed in the Prophel 's 
village two days and one night. His estimate of the population 
was about one hundred warriors, making the number of vil- 
lagers between three and four hundred. He says he did not 
stay at the village, but about four or five miles below at their 
hunting ground. 



136 Wisconsin Archcologist Y. 2, Xo. 3 

The population of the Prophet's village was made up of half- 
breed and mongrel Winnebago. with a liberal admixture of 
other half-breed Indians. That the Indians at Prophet's vil- 
lage were by the Winnebago considered a bad lot, is evidenced 
by a letter from General Joseph M. Street, Indian Agent at 
Prairie du ( 1 hien. to General 'William Clark, Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs at St. Louis, under date of July 6, 1831. He 
said: "The Winnehago now desire me to ask their (treat Father 
to break up this town on Hock River, as they are apprehensive 
that renegade Winnebago. with other bad Indians, may do mis- 
chief, and the whole Winuebago nation have to suffer for it." 
On July T.'lS.'H. -John Reynolds. Uovernor of Illinois, wrote 
to the Secretary of War. "There is a village of bad Indians on 
Rock River about thirty miles from its mouth which I will rec- 
ommend you to have moved to the west side of the river. This 
may save a great deal of trouble." (*2()th Cong. 1st Sess., II. 
H. Doc. 117.) To a certain extent, the lowrr end of Rock River 
appears to have been a melting pot for various tribes of In- 
dians. Prior to IS'J.'!. it is doubtful if there were any villages 
of pure blooded Winnebago below Turtle Village. As we have 
seen, both Forsyth and Keating tell us that Kishwaukee village 
was made up of Indians of various tribes, and Keating makes 
the definite statement that the Peeatonica Indians were a mix- 
ture of Potawatomi. Sac. Fox. Menomini, Winnebago, etc. 

Revert inu 1 to the Winnebago Prophet, we cannot attempt to 
give the various opinions reirnrding the Prophet's character. 
It is interesting to note that after the Black Hawk War. he 
allied himself with the Winnebago, and probably died while 
his tribe was living in the Blue Earth country of Minnesota. 
One son, called the Young Prophet, succeeded his father as 
chieftain. 

A paper on the subject of the Lower Rock River Wiuuebago 
would be far from complete without a discussion of John 
Dixon's relations with the Winnebago. It is a matter of com- 
mon knowledge that John Dixon. founder of the city of Dixon. 
was the successor to Joseph Ogee in the ownership and man- 
agement of the ferry which was maintained for the benefit of 
travelers who desired to cross the river on their journey from 
Peoria to Galena. 



Lower Rock River 137 



At that point, Mr. Dixon maintained a general store, and an 
affidavit of his son, James P. Dixon, to which we have already 
alluded, made in 1838, shows that his dealing with the Indians 
was more extensive than was formerly believed. This affidavit, 
made in support of John Dixon 's claim for $2,298.25, for mer- 
chandise sold to the Indians and allowed him under the treaty 
of 1837, which provided for payment of the just debts of the 
Winnebago Indians, gives some interesting facts relating to 
the extent of Mr. Dixon 's trade with the Winnebago. The 
goods were purchased from Mr. Soulard of Galena, from Henry 
Gratiot of Gratiot 's Grove, and from Julius DeMunn, who had 
a trading house on Sugar River in the Territory of Wisconsin. 
DeMunn 's trading house appears to have been located at about 
the site of the present city of Brodhead and right near White 
Breast's village, as previously mentioned. DeMunn was a near 
relative of the Choteaus, pioneer French Indian traders of St. 
Louis, and was a brother-in-law of Henry Gratiot. 

The Dixons, father and sons, hauled their goods out into 
the Winnebago Swamp, which, at that time, according to the 
affidavit, extended to within about twelve miles of the city of 
Dixon and lay to the southeast. There were twenty or more 
Winnebago families camped in the swamp. Their lodges were 
scattered over a radius of twenty miles and they remained there 
all winter. We thus learn, the location of the Winnebago win- 
ter hunting grounds, which Henry Gratiot told us the Indians 
started for from the mouth of the Pecatonica. They were the 
Winnebago Swamp and the locality about four or five miles 
below the Prophet's Village. 

From my esteemed friend, the late William D. Barge, who 
Avas a descendant of John Dixon, I have received many items of 
information relating to Mr. Dixon's personal and business iv- 
lations with the Winnebago. The old Dixqii account book, still 
in' existence, shows us that Mr. Dixon trusted the white man 
and the Indian alike, and he told Mr. Barge that the only 
money he lost by trusting an Indian was one dollar owing for 
an axe sold to an Indian who was killed on a hunting trip. 
The account book contains charges against ''Daddy Walker." 
"Limpy," "Old Quaker," "Sour Eads," "Corngather," 

Preacher Long Sober Man," and "Blinkey's Brother." 

Phillip Face" is charged with " massa.irran " (meaning lead), 



. . 



138 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2, No. 3 

"w r a sarah" (grease), "my sherry," "flint stone," and "ohan- 
ena" (meaning unknown). "Squirrel Cheeks" bought "oats 
netega. " "Fat Squaw with many beads" owes a balance due 
on a shirt; "Old Blue Coat's Son" is charged with "wy paris- 
able" (meaning black cloth). Chief Jarro's name Appears 
often. Allusion has been made to the probable fact of his 
village having been located at Grand Detour. 

Pay-chunka, or Chief Crane, is mentioned, and his brother 
Blue Coat. This chieftain seems to have been in the vicinity 
of the lower Rock River for a long time. Forsyth's Indian 
Agency account books (Rock Island) show dealings with him 
in 1824 and ISiV). 

The dealings of the early white Indian traders constitute a 
chapter in American history not at all creditable to the whites. 
It is a story of reprisals and counter reprisals. The Indians 
were deceived, cheated, and, worst of all, made irresponsible 
by whiskey, which the designing white traders sold them. 

One of the bright spots in this sordid story is the relation of 
lolin Dixon to the \Viniiebago. Not only did he refuse to sell 
them whiskey, but under his influence many of them, ineluditiir 
Chief Jarro, became active apostles of temperance. In the 
evening of life, Father Dixon, as he was called, received yearly 
visits from his old Wiimebago friends, who camped near his. 
house and gave exhibitions of dancing in the village hall. On 
account of his flowing white locks, they called him Na-chu-sa, 
meaning white hair. In his daily visits to the Indians, they 
talked over the old days, part of the time using Winnebago 
and part of the time English, and they laughed and wept alter- 
nately as they recalled the events in their lives. 

In July, 1876, a band of Winnebago came to visit Mr. Dixon, 
but they were a week too late to see their old friend Na-chu-sa, 
w r ho had departed for that land which they conceived to be 
the abode of the departed Spirits. When they learned of their 
loss, they were inconsolable, and there was much weeping and 
lamentation. Without giving their customary exhibition, they 
departed for their home in Black River Falls. 

The treaty of Fort Armstrong compelled the Indians to leave 
the Rock River, and they were loath to go. Undoubtedly, ac- 
cording to their custom, many a suppliant Winnebago retired 
far from the haunts of his fellow man, and for days abstained 



Lozver Rock River 139 



from food, trusting that some favoring: spirit would appear to 
him in a dream and promise him an eventual victory over the 
whites. That they believed they had received such a promise 
was evidenced by the statement of Chief "Old Soldier/' of 
Turtle Village, who told Henry Gratiot that they were not 
pleased with the treaty, and "before we move we will carry our 
wampum to the neighboring tribes; then we will return again. 
The Great Spirit is mad with the whites and when they gather 
again to come against us, He will send a sickness among them 
that will destroy them and we will remain on Rock River in 
peace." The same faith in the Great Spirit's willingness to 
destroy the white man had been expressed by the Shawiiee 
Prophet and many other aboriginal soothsayers. But their 
Deity was never able to save the Indians from the aggressions 
of the white man. 

On February 8, 1833, Henry Gratiot reported that a part of 
the Rock River Winnebago were in the vicinity of the "Agency, 
Waters of Sugar Creek, ' ' and there were many complaints from 
the white inhabitants of thefts committed by the Indians. They 
had killed a number of hogs belonging to farmers along the 
Pecatonica, and he was having much difficulty in preventing 
hostilities on the part of the whites. (23d Cong. 1833-4. In- 
dian Removals.) In 1835, E. A. Brush, who was sent to induce 
the Winnebago to move, writing from Detriot to Secretary of 
War Cass, said that Stone Man (another name for White 
Breast), Little Priest, and White Crow had gone north of the 
Wisconsin ; that there were about 1,000 to 1,200 Winnebago on 
Kushkandng, Catfish and Sugar Creek, the Pekaioleka and 
Rock Rivers, "of whom one hundred and fifty were below 
Dixon's Ferry." 



140 Wisconsin Archcologist V. 2, No. 3 



RAINY LAKES INDIANS 
ALBERT B. REAGAN 

I arrived at International Falls, Minnesota, on. the morning 
of the 19th of October last, but found that the "International" 
(the lake boat) would not run up the lakes until the 20th, so 
I bided my time by visiting Fort Frances, Ontario, and the 
International Pulp mills at International Falls, on Rainy River, 
said to be the largest paper pulp mills in the world. On the 
20th I took boat. Our course lay nearly east. For eight hours 
we steamed up the lakes a distance of more than fifty miles. 
Our course lay among islands and projecting points and through 
narrows and wide open lake spaces. The day was beautiful 
and the mirrored shadows <>f the shore line, rocks, trees, and 
entangled vines brought to view the doubled beauty of the won- 
derful scenery. As we journeyed along in and out of this 
chain of lakes, the lake birds gathered about us, and the cap- 
tain threw bread and crackers and other eatables on the water 
for them. Without fear the birds hovered about and darted 
here and there for the floating morsels; and they were disap- 
pointed when the boat whistled for Kettle Falls, our destination. 

Our boat had hardly anchored when an Indian woman by 
the name of Ke-me-tah-beake was canoeing me over the Kettle 
Falls on the British side; and on the next day I proceeded on 
to Moos River and Capitogama Lake. I had moose meat for 
supper, and our Indian guide killed a deer at about dark. So 
we had plenty of venison for the rest of our stay in the country. 

We were in the Indian country and Indian scenes were on 
view on every hand. 

While strolling about the Indian village on the day of our 
arrival, I found two Indians playing the Bowl Game the Chip- 
pewa dice game. The players had a symmetric, nicely finished. 
hemispheric bowl of some thirteen inches in diameter and six 
inches in depth, a bowl made of a large nodule of a maple 
root, fashioned solely with the aid of an axe and a knife. This 



Rainy Lakes Indians 141 



bowl was about an inch in thickness in the bottom but tapered 
toward its rim. In the game there were forty counters. These 
were made of trimmed sticks about twelve inches in length and 
usually about an eighth of an inch in thickness. Half of these 
were colored red, half white. The dice used in the game w r ere 
some variously carved, very small, thin pieces of bone, with sides 
variously colored. 

When I arrived, the bowl containing these dice was being 
lightly tapped on the ground to flip the dice. Bets were being 
made, and the staked property was on view. As both spectators 
and players sang, the game went on. A "smart" tap of the 
bowl might change the whole game. While thus playing, the 
players tapped the bowl alternately until one person won all 
the counters, both the white counters and the red ones. He 
then had the game. 

The value of the throws as played were: 

First throw (tap), 3 white dice and 5 red, 1 count. 

Second throw, 4 white dice and 4 red, a draw. 

Third throw, 8 white dice and red, 40 counts. 

Fourth throw, 2 white dice and 6 red, 4 counts. 

Fifth throw, 1 white dice and 7 red, 20 counts. 

I watched this game till one of the players who had sold some 
hay the day before for $180.00 was staking a handful of nails 
on the game. 

Turning from the game, I heard a vigorous drum tap in one 
of the houses and on entering the house I found several Indians 
playing the Moccasin Game. It was a curious affair and re- 
sembled our "shell game" in many respects. A blanket was 
spread on the floor and on it in front of the player were four 
inverted moccasins. The player also had four bullets in his 
hand, one of which was marked and was the winning bullet. 

As the winner sang, this actor (player) waved his hands and 
went through various contortions and sleight-of-hand perform- 
ances to disconcert his opponents, as he slipped one bullet after 
another under a moccasin, a bullet to each moccasin. When all 
had been placed, the guessing began. An opponent went 
through various preliminaries with a long stick, as he sliniuuvd 
his shoulders and wriggled his body. Then he struck the moc- 
casin under which he thought the marked bullet was hid. Some- 
times he won and got the moccasins and the bullets, and his op- 



142 Wisconsin Archcologist V. 2, No. 3 

ponents began to guess. Each time a person failed to guess 
right, he lost a tally-count. Forty tally-counts gave the winner 
the game. 

While watching this moccasin game, my attention was at- 
tracted to a deep sounding drum beat beyond a little rise of 
ground. So I repaired to the spot from whence it came. There 
I saw the medicine fraternity initiating a "subject'' into the 
medicine lodge, called "Medawin" (lodge) by the Indians. 
The medicine ceremonies were being held in a long, drawn-out 
wigwam of 100 feet or more in length, a wigwam all but having 
the bark roof on it. I went close to the lodge and saw the peo- 
ple eating puppy sou}) with a relish. And soon thereafter tin- 
dance began, or rather was resumed, as they had been dancing 
previous to the dog-feast period. Two old men began to chant 
in the minor key, while both heat a crude drum. As soon as 
the chant had reached a fairly high pitch, the dancers be^an 
to line up in column style, the "novitiate" heading the column. 
The dance was a forward movement encircling the central space 
of the lodge, the movement being a t ripping, gliding dance. As 
each one thus danced, he waved some medicine trophy in each 
hand, usually the skin of a bird or some small animal. As 
they waved the medicine things they gave forth peculiar utter- 
ances in grunting style and glided, tripped " n - 

After this dance had continued for a considerable time there 
was a lull, a short recess. The drummers then began the sec- 
ond series of their drumming. The chief, who had drummed 
at first, now took the drum again. His chant (it is the drum- 
mer's song that is sung) was the tradition of how Manabush 
killed the monster sea lion and created the present land areas 
of the earth, as follows: 

"This was a long time ago. Manabush then lived in this 
section. One day he shot a huge lion of the sea. The lion be- 
came very much enraged, but was not much hurt. As a result 
of his wound, however, he bled freely. Furthermore, he vowed 
that he would have revenge. So he caused so much of his blood 
to flow that he drowned the whole world with it. He caused 
a great flood to come upon all things. 

"As the great surging liquid was covering up everything, 
Manabush rushed from his house and in the nick of time, pulled 
up much of the then forests of the earth by the roots and 



Rainy Lukes Indians 143 



hastily constructed a huge raft. But before he had it large 
enough, it was floated above the tree tops and he could get no 
more timber with which to make it larger. Now Manabush is 
the elder brother of all the beasts of the earth. So he col- 
lected on the raft as many of his brothers as he could find 
room for. Many, however, were left to swim about in the water 
till they became exhausted and drowned. Thus many of the 
species of the earth perished. Others could get a clinging hold 
on the edge of the raft and still others were trying and strug- 
gling in the water to get a hold. And even those on the raft 
were now and then pulled off by others struggling for their 
very existence. Thus for days and nights and for nights and 
days did things go on. Finally Manabush decided upon a plan 
by which things could be readjusted. After he had thoroughly 
studied it out, he called Otter and said: 'You are a good 
diver. You dive down to the land below us and report how deep 
the water (blood) is.' Otter did as he was told. He dove down- 
ward. For days and days he was gone. Then one morning his 
lifeless body was found floating near the raft. He was all 
doubled up and stiff. They got his body and took it onto the 
raft, and carefully examined the hands, the feet, and the mouth 
to see if there was any signs of his having seen, or of his having 
been down to the bottom of the depths; but there was none. 

"Manabush then took him up in his strong hands, and, after 
prying his mouth open, he blew the breath of life into his 
mouth and nostrils. (Manabush is the all powerful god. He 
can impart life and cause things to grow. He can also restore 
life to things that have died.) So Otter came to life again. 
He then told them that he had not seen the bottom of the great 
deep, that he was still going down Avhen he became unconscious. 

"After Manabush had listened to Otter's report, he called 
Beaver and said: 'You are *a good diver, also. You dive down 
and see if you can find the land. ' 

"Beaver dove down and down and down and he also did not 
return for many days. Finally his body, as was Otter's was 
found floating lifeless on the surface near the raft. They took 
it abroad and carefully examined it to see if there were any 
signs of his having been to the bottom of the liquid world. 
But there were none. Then Manabush brought him back to 
life, as he had Otter. He then told them that he had got so far 



144 Wisconsin Archcologist V. 2. \i. .1 

down as to be able to see trees and other vegetation, that thru 
he became unconscious and knew no more till he was restored 
to life. 

" 'Come here/ shouted Manabush to Muskrat. who was shiv- 
ering in one corner of the raft. 'You dive down and see what 
you can see and come back and report it to us. \Ve are in des- 
perate straits here. I'nless something is done we will all perish.' 

Muskrat dove down and down and down out of s;rht and 
was not seen again for many months. Then only his lifeless. 
curled-up body was found floating near the raft. It was picked 
up and carefully examined. And. lo ! he had a leaf in one hand 
and some dirt both in his mouth and in the other hand 'paw;. 
Manabush carefully collected the dirt and the leaf in his own 
larire hand. Then he brorght .Muskrat back to life as he had 
Otter and Beaver. Then after he was alive airain. he stated 
that he had ironc down and down till finally he saw the trees 
and vegetation. He continued: 'I then made one great dive 
and made one great effort to rct some of the precious things 
of the former land surface. As I was makinir this dive. I became 
unconscious and knew no more till my life was Driven back to 
me by my elder brother.' 

".Manabush now had the requisites he desired. He took the 
dirt and held it in his open hand, palm upwards. On this he 
be-jaii to blow his life-giving, size-increasing breath. He blew 
just hard enough to blow small particles of earth off of the raft 
in all directions. These at once increased in size to island areas 
in the pounding waters. He kept on blowing his breath on 
the lump of dirt in his hand and the particles kept flyinir off. 
The islands were soon coalesced into a land area of consider- 
able size. -The animals wished to leave the raft but he forbade 
them, sayinir: 'Wait till the land area is so la rye that you can 
not see the edire of it. Then you may leave this place.' This 
soon came. As the yod-one kept on blowing particles to add 
to the area, it finally became quite large. Te determine r 
tent, he then sent Crow to see how larire it was. Crow new and 
flew for seven days, finally reaching the end of the land. He. 
then returned and reported. 

" 'The area is not yet large enough,' said Manabush. So 
he continued to add to it in the same manner as before, blowing 
his breath so hard as to be able to blow it beyond the borders 



Kain\ Lakes Indians 145 



of the then island. This he continued to do for many, many 
days. Then he sent Falcon-hawk to investigate again the ex- 
tent of the land area thus formed. Hawk started at once and 
was gone nearly a year before he came back to report, but Mana- 
bush was not satisfied with the then land according to the re- 
port, saying that it still was not large enough. So he continued 
to blow dirt out of the palm of his hand, giving each particle 
the power in itself to increase in size. He kept thus increasing 
the size of the land for another whole return of the sun from 
north to south and back again. He then sent Eagle out to as- 
certain the extent of the land. And Eagle found it so large 
that he was never able to return. So Manabush ceased to in- 
crease the surface-land and set about to establish other neces- 
sary things. 

"The first thing that he did after he had created the present 
land-surface of the earth was to make the pot-holes in which 
the lakes are today, for without fresh water everything would 
perish on earth, but he was very careful not to make too much 
water. After he had made the lakes, he took a handful of 
seed in his powerful, large, right hand. This he scattered over 
the whole earth, and from if he caused the various trees and 
other vegetation to grow over all the land. Then in these wooded 
parts he established the Ojibwa (Chippewa) Indians. After he 
had finished his work, he went back to his eastern home at the 
coming of the Dawn where he is now." 

As I was listening to this chant and watching the dance, I 
noticed that through the center of the lodge longitudinally 
there were hung many blankets and much bright colored calico, 
the novitiate's payment to join the order. At the close of the 
ceremony, I noticed that the medicine men took these medicine 
gifts to themselves, as the price of their services. 

The next day found me in the Indian village of Xett Lake, 
where I observed a Grand Medicine Lodire dance-scene similar 
to the one above. 

Toward evening I took a canoe and went over to Picture 
Island and examined the chiseled pictures of the long airo. As 
I was examining the various pictured scenes night closed over 
the hind, and before another day I was on my way back to 
civilization. 



146 Wisconsin Archcolocjist Y. 2, No. 3 

In Nett Lake about a quarter of a mile off shore to the north 
of the Indian village of Nett Lake is an island of something like 
a half acre in area. Its western and southern parts are 
wooded with polar and birch and elm and shrubs and some viny 
species. There is also some grass and quite a profusion of flow- 
ering plants scattered here and there. Its northeastern part has 
an exposure of bare rocks pitching into the lake on that side. 
Its central part reaches an elevation of some ten feet above the 
surface of the water in the lake. The island is surrounded by 
rice fields, except on the south where the water is too deep for 
rice to grow. In the ages past this island as well as the whole 
surrounding country was glaciated. At the time of this glacia- 
tion, the northern sloping rocks on the northeastern part of the 
island were polished to an almost perfect smoothness. 

Later then in the revolving years the region was inhabited 
by Indians. These Indians visited this picturesque island. 
Here the medicine men danced and "made medicine;" the In- 
dian wooed his squaw in the squaw dance, and from here 
Bwennabusha (Manabush), their god, called the dusky inhabi- 
tants to partake with him of the eternal bliss of the happy hunt- 
ing ground. To commemorate the events of that far away time, 
the medicine man chiseled the then life scenes on the polished 
rock surface of their island home. These have been preserved 
to the investigator, though all history of their purpose and the 
people that made them have vanished from the legends of the 
present aborigines of the country. The pictographs. thus pre- 
served, are of dance and medicine scenes, scenes of the hunt, 
and dream scenes. 

This island has one peculiar feature. The polished rock area 
is hollow beneath; and. walking over it, it gives out a hollow, 
drum-like sound. For this reason it is considered sacred by the 
Indians of the reservation to this day. They say that this is 
the home of their god and that he ' 'drums 7 ' whenever they go 
on the island to tell them they are on sacred ground. To appease 
this god and keep his good will, they place "medicine," tobacco, 
and smelling herbs in the crevices and the * ' hollow ' ' place in the 
rock as an offering to him. 

The pictographs were probably made for the same purpose. 
The drawings, however, seem to be similar to those at Pipestone, 
Minnesota, which are known to be Siouan. The Chippewas have 





Indian Pictography 

Picture Island, Nett Lake, Minnesota 
Plate .> 



Rainy Lakes Indians 147 



a legend-myth which seems also to indicate that they are the 
chiseled pictures of that tribe. It states: 

"The first Chippewa Indians in the region came to Pelican 
Lake from the Vermillion Lake region to the eastward. Ar- 
riving at Pelican Lake, they explored it. On coming to what 
is now known as Farmer John's landing at the west end of this 
lake, they found a little stream leading northwestward. This 
they followed to its source, and then after going over a little 
knoll, they came to the head waters of a little creek that flows 
westward through the Austrian's homesteads to the northeast 
lobe of Nett Lake. Coming in sight of that lake, they returned 
to Pelican Lake and gave word to the other Indians of what 
they had discovered. A day's rest was then taken. Then a 
large company of Chippewa passed over this portage route to 
Nett Lake by way of Lost Creek, carrying their canoes with 
them. 

"They had been canoeing only a few minutes in that lake 
when they came in sight of Picture Island, and lo ! it was 
swarming with a multitude of beings that were half sea lion 
and half fish. On their approach these became panic stricken, 
and, fleeing to the west side of the island, took to the water. 
They then swam with all speed across the lake and up a little 
creek that leads southwestward toward 0. M. Banner's and 
Andy Field's allotments. Reaching the head of the stream and 
still being pursued and caught as in a net, they dove down into 
the earth. Now the water bubbles forth from the place where 
they disappeared, a site still held sacred by our people. On 
coming to the island, the canoemen paddled around it. Then 
by the track of the muddied water they pursued the beasts 
(fleeing Sioux?) across the lake and up the creek till they found 
where the earth had swallowed them up as though caught in a 
net. Since then we have called the lake 'Netor as-sab-co-na 
(Nett Lake, the lake with a net). When our people returned 
from the pursuit, they found these pictographs .on the island. 
They are the writings of those half sea lion, half fish beings." 



148 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2, No. 3 



SACK WAR BUNDLES 
ALANSON SKINNER 

While now progressive in many respects, the Sank were un- 
usually difficult to approach with regard to the matter of sell- 
ing certain of. their sacred objects, particularly the otterskin 
medicine bags and paraphernalia of the Medicine Dance, and 
their sacred war bundles, or portable shrines containing war 
talismans. However, the writer had an unusual advantage ill 
that he was able to understand a little of the Sank language 
through his acquaintance with the cognate Menomini tongue, 
and the very important fact that he is a member of the Medi- 
cine Lodge, the great secret society common to most of the 
Central tribes. 

Accordingly, after a lengthy campaign, the confidence of 
several of the leading members of the Medicine Lodge was 
gained, and no less than sixteen of the highly pri/ed otter and 
squirrel skin pouches of the fraternity were collected. The 
gathering of any of the sacred war bundles was much more 
difficult, but in the end several keepers of the gens bundle 
houses were won over, and fourteen of these remarkable palla- 
diums were brought to the Milwaukee Public museum. 

In each war bundle are contained certain medicines, such as 
roots and herbs to render the warriors invulnerable and in- 
visible, the skins of mammals and birds who have promised to 
give their aid to those who carry them in time of battle, and 
various other articles, such as prisoner ties, ceremonial aprons, 
head ornaments and the like put in the bundles as rewards to 
the first men to strike the foe, or in accordance w r ith the dreams 
of the bundle owners. These latter articles are often of con- 
siderable antiquity and great value and beauty, being adorned 
with the dyed quills of the porcupine or deer hair embroidery, 
buffalo hair and horns, and the like. In fact, as no man can 
foresee what dream may have dictated to the maker of any given 
bundle, the ethnologist may well expect to find anything in 
one, from an antique garment to a wampum belt. 



Sauk War Bundles 149 



Obtaining the bundles is rather a gamble, for it is impossible 
to look into one before buying it. However, some exceptionally 
fine specimens were collected in this manner. Among them were 
a pouch made from the legskin of an albino buffalo, two quill 
embroidered war aprons, numerous headdresses and prisoner 
ties, quill ornamented eagle plumes, animal skins with human 
scalps attached and the like. 

A war bundle from the Bear-potato Gens contained a little 
scaffold ready to set up, and the skins of two otters, to which 
were attached fragments of eighteen and eight scalps, respec- 
tively. A little stick also had three scalplocks tied on it. The 
latter represented old men taken prisoner by the war party 
bearing this bundle, the former slain foemen. 

A very fine war bundle from the Kickapoo tribe was also 
obtained. The Kickapoo are on the whole much more conserva- 
tive than the Sauk, but this bundle was kept in the loft of the 
Sauk Wolf Gens bundle house. It had been brought there years 
ago by the members of a Kickapoo Wolf Gens war party who 
had killed some of their enemies, (it is said that they took four 
scalps) and were afraid of governmental intervention. They 
begged leave of their Sauk congeners to leave the bundle there 
and never returned for it. In course of time, all connected 
with the bundle died, except one woman, and Mr. Harris, our 
Sauk interpreter went to her country, searched her out, and 
bought her rights to the bundle. The finest article in it is a 
prisoner tie with a broad ornamental band to go around the 
neck which is made of Indian hemp embroidered heavily with 
dyed horse hair after the manner of the burden straps of the 
Iroquois. 

Some war bundles of a hitherto unknown type, called "charg- 
ing war bundles" because they are carried entire into battle 
on forlorn hope attacks, were likewise collected. One of these 
is composed principally of the dried skin of a duck hawk con- 
tained in a tight envelope of deerskin, with cords to attach it 
to the left hip when charging naked into the fray. 

Not far from the headquarters of the Sauk in Oklahoma 
dwell the loway Indians, a people of the Siouan linguistic stock, 
closely related, not at all to the sauk, with whom they have ever 
been on friendly terms, but to our own Wisconsin Winnebago, 
the Missouri and the Otoe. 



150 Wisconsin Archcoluyist Y. 2, Xn. 3 

In the year 1914 the writer had the privilege of working for 
some weeks with the last chief of the tribe, David Towhee, and 
another man of prominence? Joe Springer, collecting specimens 
and data for the American Museum of Xat viral History of New 
York. At that time he was shown one of the sacred peace pipes 
of the tribe, of which there were seven, and was told that never 
before had any white man ga/ed upon it. Chief Towhee died 
during the great influenza epidemic, but -Joe Springer (he died 
later in the summer), was still alive, so the writer visited him 
and succeeded in obtaining not only this beautiful pipe, but 
five others, also the last existing peace-pipe bundle of the prac- 
tically extinct Missouri tribe. With the assistance of Robert 
Small, a first class interpreter, many other fine articles were 
collected, and several side trips to the Otoe were made and a 
small but good collection was gathered from them as well. A 
trip to the former loway and Great Xemaha Reserve at the 
Kansas-Nebraska line was almost fruitless, inasmuch as the 
loway and Sank residing there have definitely abandoned their 
customs in favor of ours, and within the last three years had 
a final ceremony, after which they destroyed their sacred medi- 
cine bundles and other Indian paraphernalia. 



A Prehistoric Copper Mine 151 



A PREHISTORIC COPPER MINE 

GEO. BRINTON PHILLIPS, A. B. 

Long before the white men had settled in America, the Chip- 
peway Indians and others from the southwest had found a 
substitute for the flint spears and arrow heads chipped with 
laborious care. They had discovered occasional fragments of 
a reddish metallic substance in the. soil, which unlike stone 
could be beaten out with their stone hammers and this they fash- 
ioned into arrow heads and other objects. It was native copper 
from the copper bearing rocks of Michigan. Thousands of 
years before, when the great ice cap moving down from the 
frozen north pushing the glacier and ice field ahead, reached, 
what is now the southern shore of Lake Superior, planing down 
the trap rocks on its way and grinding and polishing the great 
granite ledges as it passed over them, and in its irresistible 
course carrying away the outcrop of the copper bearing rocks 
of the Ontonagon region. Then, when the retreating glacier 
melted it deposited its stolen load of fragments of copper loaded 
rocks in the fields of the west and southwest, miles and miles 
away. 

Exposed to the weather in the course of time, the rocky mat- 
ter slowly disintegrated and was washed away, leaving in the 
soil half buried fragments of native copper, often of consider- 
able size. In the Indian mounds of the west and southwest have 
been found copper ornaments and other objects which the na- 
tives fashioned into shapes with their stone implements, and 
these metal objects may be identified as copper coming from 
the Lake Superior region. 

For the copper from this locality is remarkably pure, assay- 
ing 99.85 per cent fine, sometimes carrying just a mere trace 
of silver and iron. The foreign copper brought over by the 
traders and obtained by the Indians was never so pure, having 
always more or less other metals associated with it, for as the 
refining process of the impure copper in Europe was never 
very perfect, there was always left some impurities in the metal. 



152 Wisconsin Archeologist \ . 2, Xo. 3 

The history of the wonderful mines of Lake Superior is pretty 
well known, some of the copper bearing rocks around Hancock 
and Houghton developed rich veins which proved enormously 
productive in native copper, while in the neighborhood there 
were shafts which had been sunk to a considerable depth with- 
out obtaining any copper and then abandoned. 

It was in 186*4 when the writer, who had an assay office at 
Marquette, Michigan, made a visit to the copper region to col- 
lect minerals and to examine the mines. 

In his search for out crop of rocks which might contain metal, 
he came on one occasion to a spot where a great tree had been 
uprooted by a violent windstorm, and it lay with its roots up- 
turned leaving a great gaping hole in the ground. The wide- 
spread roots had torn up the soil, so that a ledge of rock was 
exposed and on one side half hidden there was a singular open- 
ing. A nearer inspection revealed an entrance to a shaft which 
seemed worth exploring and with the light of a few matches 
he pushed his way in. It seemed to he an ancient mining shaft 
with parallel walls reaching to the ceiling about seven feet over- 
head. The rock was a calcJe conglomerate such as often carries 
copper, and he saw projecting from the roof pieces of copper 
like stalactites, three or four inches long and about as thick as 
a knife handle. Not having come prepared for such explora- 
tion, the writer broke off several specimens of the copper and 
carried them away, with the intention of exploring the shaft 
another day when equipped with candles and tools. But it so 
happened he was never able to repeat the visit. 

Taking it altogether, the discovery was very interesting. Here 
was what seemed to be a prehistoric mining shaft cut into the 
ledge probably with stone tools by men who had some knowledge 
of mining. From the fact that the ledge with its opening to 
the shaft had been completely covered with the accumulated 
earth and soil and on which a tree had sprung up and grown to 
a good old age proved that this operation was not that of the 
modern miner, or the work of the roving Indian. 

There was also another reason for believing in the antiquity 
of the mine. Surely these copper pieces hanging like stalactites 
from the roof w T hich the writer broke off had never been visible 
to the old miners for if they had been seen by them such very 
desirable pieces would have been carried off and used. 




Copper 
Plate 3 



A Prehistoric Copper Mine 153 

When that old shaft was being worked those very desirable 
shaped bits of copper were imbedded in the calcareous rock 
and not visible but in the course of possibly centuries, the melt- 
ing snow overhead and the rain water trickling through the 
soil carrying carbonic acid gradually dissolved away the cal- 
careous deposit which incrusted the copper until some inches 
of the pieces now projected from the roof. 

The time taken to wear away the rock so as to expose these 
pieces of copper as w r ell as to fill up the hillside with debris, 
cover the ledge and the entrance to the shaft, and the accumula- 
tion of soil and the old tree, all indicated a long period of time 
had elapsed since the shaft had been opened and abandoned, 
and suggested it was the work of some prehistoric race. 

A careful examination of the samples of copper broken from 
the roof of this ancient mine, was interesting, and instructive. 
The copper was found to be brittle, instead of tough and ductile, 
and the bright metallic surface which native copper fresh from 
the mines often shows, was entirely absent. The surface being 
thickly encrusted with a coating of green carbonate of copper 
and in places the brown cupreous oxide. The deep corrosion 
and pitting of the surface suggested long exposure to some 
chemical action, very different from the patera, or tarnish pro- 
duced by the air. 

To ascertain the amount of this corrosion a small fragment 
was sawn off and weighed. Weight 3.028 gms. It was treated 
with hydrochloric acid and warmed, which in a few minutes dis- 
solved the green carbonate coating leaving bright metallic cop- 
per, which when washed, dried and weighed, the loss was found 
to be 0.597 gms., or about 18 per cent of the original weight. 
This gives some idea of the amount of the corrosion, and the 
extent of time required to produce it. 

This corrosion was very different from the superficial action, 
which the writer has observed on the surface of specimens of 
ancient bronze or copper found in the tombs or dug up in some 
Cemeteries, reputed to be one or two thousand years old or more. 
The specimens from this prehistoric shaft suggested the long 
continued action of dripping water charged with carbonic acid 
which had gradually dissolved away the calcite rock in avhich 
the native copper was more or less embedded, and corroding 



154 Wisconsin Archcologist V. 2, No. 3 

and eating into the surface of the copper, thus destroying: its 
metallic appearance, and affecting its properties. 

The writer exhibits in the photograph the specimens of native 
copper, No. 1 and No. 2, from a dump heap of a Lake Superior 
copper mine. No. 1 has sharp points of metal and a little rocky 
matter adhering to it. No. 2 shows sharp jagged points of cop- 
per with the calcite crystals which appear as white spots in the 
photograph, while the jagged edges, projecting points of metal 
and exposed surfaces of copper are but slightly tarnished after 
the exposure of some sixty years in a cabinet. 

The appearance of specimens No. :> and No. 4 is very different. 
They show at a glance the absence of a metallic surface, no 
sharp points or ragged edges of metal visible, no calcite or 
rocky matter adhering to them, and appear as if covered with 
a thick varnish like layer of the given carbonate of copper. 

As has been stated, Lake Superior copper is remarkably pure, 
showing as high as 99.85 per cent pure copper with traces some- 
times of iron and silver. An analysis the writer made of a 
fragment of the clean copper from this ancient shaft gave no 
evidence of silver or iron, but proved to be almost pure copper, 
99.4 per cent fine. The conclusion one arrives at is that this 
old mining shaft operated by a race of men with some experience 
in mining had been deserted and abandoned for probably a 
number of centuries, and hidden from the eyes of the roving 
Indians by the covering of the opening by the accumulation of 
soil and the forest tree, and overlooked by the modern prospec- 
tor in his search for an outcrop of metal. 

Who were those ancient miners who, before the days of Colum- 
bus, discovered copper in the Lake Superior region, and dug 
into the hillside a tunnel .' 



Archcological Notes 155 



ARCHEOLOGICAL NOTES 



SOCIETY MEETINGS 

January 15, 1923, President L. R. Whitney conducted the meeting. There 
were seventy-two members and visitors present. Mr. George A. West de 
livered an illustrated lecture on "Stonehenge and the Mounds of Salisbury 
Plain," which he had visited during a past summer's trip to England. Prof. 
A. V. Smith gave a description of the stone works and earth works in his 
native country of Wiltshire. Both the lecture and talk were discussed by 
the members present. Secretary Brown presented a report of the business 
conducted at the director's meeting. The deaths of two members, Mr. John 
A. Hazelwood, Milwaukee, and Mr. George M. Brugger, Fond du Lac, were 
announced. 

February 19, 1923, President Whitney occupied the chair. Sixty members 
and visitors were in attendance. Mr. Ralph M. Linton, of the Field Museum 
of Natural History, Chicago, delivered a lecture on "The Natives of the 
Marquesas Islands." Rev. Francis S. Dayton, New London, gave a talk 
on "The Manufacture of Copper Implements," which he illustrated with 
numerous specimens collected from Indian village sites in Waupaca County. 
Mr. A. C. Windau exhibited two fine quartzite knives and a copper point 
from Columbia County. Secretary Brown announced the dates of the an- 
nual joint meeting with the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, and of the an- 
nual meeting of the Central Section, A. A. A. Mr. Frank G. Logan had 
endowed a chair in American archeology at Beloit College, giving $100,000 
for that purpose. The death of Mr. Thomas A. Bardon, Ashland, an old 
member of the Society, was greatly regretted by the members. 

March 19, 1923, Annual Meeting. Conducted by President L. R. Whitney. 
Thirty-eight members and a number of visitors were present. The Messrs. 
George A. West, William H. Vogel and Charles G. Schoewe were appointed 
a committee to nominate officers. The following officers were nominated 
and elected : President, Alanson Skinner, Vice-presidents, Dr. E. J. Notz, 
Dr. S. A. Barrett, W. H. Vogel, Dr. F. C. Rogers, H. H. Smith, Mrs. E. H. 
Van Ostrand, C. G. Schoewe, A. T. Newman ; directors, H. E. Cole, Dr. 
Geo. L. Collie, Mrs. H. A. Main, A. P. Kannenberg, E. F. Richter, R. P. 
Ferry, Mrs. H. E. Koerner and J. Ringeisen, Jr. Dr. W. H. Brown was 
elected treasurer and Charles E. Brown, secretary. Treasurer Schoewe and 
Secretary Brown presented their annual reports, which were accepted. Mr. 
Skinner made a report on the fate of the two Pueblo Indian land bills 
recently before Congress. Dr. Barrett reported on the success of the Central 
Section, A. A. A. meeting, held at Milwaukee, on March 2d and 3d. The 
deaths of Prof. Albert S. Flint, Madison, and Mrs. Amy D. Winship, 
Racine, both old and devoted members of the Society, were announced. Mr. 
Huron H. Smith delivered a fine illustrated lecture on the "Uses of Plants 
by the Wisconsin Menomini Indians."' 

April 16, 1923. Vice-president Dr. E. J. Notz occupied the chair. Seventy- 
five members and visitors were present. Professor Nand Singh of Marquette 
University, Milwaukee, delivered an illustrated lecture on "India and Her 
People." Exhibits of archeological specimens and photographs were made 
by Henry Achilles, Sheboygan, Dr. A. R. Wittmann, Merrill, and C. G. 
Schoewe, Milwaukee. Secretary Brown reported on the success of the joint 
meeting held with the Academy, at Beloit College, on April 6th and 7th. 

May 21, 1923. President Alanson Skinner opened the meeting. Sixty 
members and visitors were present. 



156 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2, No. 3 



Mr. George A. West delivered an illustrated lecture on "Through the Wilds 
of Nicaragua," giving an interesting account of the customs of the Indian 
inhabitants, their villages, river craft, and of the scenery and animal life 
of the sea coast and the interior of the country. Mr. Skinner told of a 
recent visit to the Potawatomi in Oklahoma. Mr. Anton Sohrweide, Jr., 
made an exhibit of Indian stone and bone implements. 

At the director's meeting, held earlier in the evening, the expenditure of 
$125.00 for fencing and other improvements at Aztalan Mound Park was 
authorized. 

OTHER MEETINGS. 

The second annual meeting of the American Antropological Association, 
Central Section, was held at tht- Milwaukee Public museum, on March 2nd 
and 3rd. On the first day of the meeting papers were presented by Dr. 
W. C. Mills, G. R. Fox, G. A. West, Charles R. Keyes, Dr. S. A. Barrett. 
Alanson Skinner and H. H. Smith. On the second day the speakers were 
Dr. Frederick Starr, Milford Chandler, C. E. Brown and Alanson Skinner. 
At the business meeting Dr. William C. Mills of Columbus, Ohio, was elected 
president of the Section, the Messrs. Charles E. Brown, Madison, and Dr. 
Berthold Laufer, Chicago, vice-presidents, and J. Alden Mason, Chicago, 
secretary-treasurer. The meeting was well attended. On the evening of 
the first day a dinner was given at the Hotel Wisconsin. 

The annual joint meeting of the Wisconsin Academy of Scienses, Arts 
and Letters and the Wisconsin Archeological Society was held at Art Hall, 
Beloit College, Beloit, on Friday and Saturday, April 6th and 7th. The 
papers presented by the archeologists were the following : 

Beloit Mound Groups George L. Collie 

Winnebago Villages of the Lower Rock River N. W. Jipson 

Removal of the Rock River Winnebago in 1833 Louise P. Kellogg 

The Applications of Amerind Decorative Arts Mrs. J. W. Tylor 

Prehistoric Archeology in France A. W. Pond 

Wood County Potawatomi A. Gerend 

The Manufacture of Stone Axes and Celts H. L. Skavlem 

Indian Cave, Richland County C. E. Brown 

Wisconsin Caves W. C. English 

Report on Archeological Work in Winnebago County. . . .A. P. Kannenberg 

Many members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society attended the meet- 
ing, the best which the two societies have held for a number of years. On 
the evening of the first day a banquet was given to the visiting members 
at Emerson Hall, by the Beloit College faculty. The archeologists and his- 
torians took advantage of an opportunity to inspect the rich archeological 
collections of the Logan museum. 

The State Field Assembly of Wisconsin Archeological and Historical so- 
cieties was held at Oshkosh, on June 8th and 9th, the Winnebago County 
Archeological and Historical Society acting as host. The program of the 
first day of the meeting consisted of an automobile pilgrimage to the Indian 
mounds, old Government buildings, the Governor Doty Log house and other 
points of interest at Neenah and Menasha, and the old Indian garden beds, 
stoneworks and caches near Payne's Point. A picnic luncheon was served 
at the Charles Nevitt cottage on Indian Point. Here addresses were de- 
livered by representatives of the several county and state societies. On 
the following morning all of those in attendance assembled on the broad 
verandah of the Municipal Club House, on the Lake Winnebago shore, at 
Oshkosh. Here a round table discussion of the work of the state and 
county societies was presided over by Mr. Charles E. Brown. Among the 
subjects discussed at this meeting were organization and membership, 
meeting programs and field meetings, landmarks work, museums and public 
collections, and publications. Among the many participating in these dis- 
cussions were O. L. Stinson, G. R. Fox, Rev. F. S. Dayton, Mr. and Mrs. 



Archeological Notes 157 



A. C. Neville, A. P. Kannenberg, Nile Behncke, M. G. Bruce, Mrs. Merton 
Smith, R. J. Barnes and R. B. Buckstaff. Luncheon was eaten at Hotel 
Athearn. 

In the afternoon a pilgrimage was made to the site of the early Grignon- 
Porlier for trading post and Indian mounds and sites on the shore of Lake 
Butte des Morts. At the George Overton farm Mr. Overton's interesting 
archeological collection was displayed and Mr. Overton gave an interesting 
talk on the Indian history and remains of the region. The meeting was 
in every respect a very successful and interesting one and reflected great 
credit upon the officers and members of the Winnbago County Archological 
and Historical Society, who organized it. The societies represented at this 
field assembly were the Wisconsin Historical Society, the Wisconsin Archeo- 
logical Society, and the Manitowoc, Waukesha, Rock, Green Lake, Brown 
. and Winnebago county societies. An invitation to hold next year's meeting 
at Stevens Point was accepted. 

OTHER ITEMS. 

The Sheboygan County Historical Society has decided to assume charge 
of the care and increase of the archeological, historical and natural history 
collections of the public museum now occupying the second floor of the 
public library building at Sheboygan. Mr. Walter Distelhorst is the secre- 
tary of the society. Mr. Ray Van Handel is largely responsible for creat- 
ing public interest in the progress of the museum, the assembling of whose 
original collections was begun by Dr. A. Gerend and others some years ago. 
So large and progressive a city as Sheboygan deserves to possess a first 
class municipally supported public museum. 

Rev. Leopold E. Drexel, for many years a very active member of the 
Wisconsin Archeological Society and greatly beloved by all who knew him 
well, died at Fox Lake, on June 26. Until the appearance of his fatal 
illness, three years ago, Father Drexel was one of the most enthusiastic 
and helpful members of the state society. He was the organizer and first 
curator of the fine museum at St. Francis Seminary, St. Francis, and 
was himself its best patron. For the state society he has conducted in- 
vestigations in past years in the Lake Winnebago region ; in Calumet and 
Fond du Lac counties ; in the Wisconsin river region, in Columbia county ; 
in the Mississippi river region, in Grant county, in Fox Lake region, in 
Dodge county, and in other localities in the state. 

Prof. Albert Stowell Flint, another prominent member of the Wisconsin 
society, for many years one of the astronomers of Washburn observatory 
of the University of Wisconsin, died at his home at Madison, on February 
22nd, after a long illness. 

In his vacation periods Professor Flint, in company with Mr. H. E. Cole 
and other members conducted archeological investigations for the state so- 
ciety in Monroe, Dane and other Wisconsin counties. He was for a number 
of years the Madison vice-president of the society and the chairman of 
its mound preservation committee. For a number of years he also actively 
assisted Secretary Brown in conducting the annual archeological and his- 
torical excursions of University summer session students. His enthusiasm 
for the work of the society never lagged even during his illness. 

Mrs. Amy Davis Winship, the oldest member of the society, died at Racine, 
at the age of ninety-two years, on February 19. She also was an en- 
thusiastic and greatly beloved member. Mr. George M. Brugger, Fond du 
Lac ; Dr. Nelson P. Hulst and John A. Hazelwood, Milwaukee, and Mrs. 
Thomas Bardon, Ashland, were other loyal friends whom it was hard to 
lose from our membership roll. 

The Board of Directors of the Wisconsin Archeological Society has elected 
since January the following new annual members : Dr. F. W. Lehman, 
Hartford; Mrs. Mary Brugger, Fond du Lac; E. S. Knudson, Eau Claire; 



158 Wisconsin Archcologist V. 2, IMo. 3 



Milo C. Richter, Milwaukee ; Benjamin Nussbaum, Forest, Illinois ; A. E. 
Hollister, Tomah ; E. A. Oilman, Portage, and Charles L. Wilhelm, St. Louis. 

Dr. N. P. Jipson, Chicago, and Prof. Nand Singh, Milwaukee, have been 
elected to honorary membership. 

At the request of the New York State Archeological Association the State 
of New York has enacted a law relating to the reproduction or forgery of 
archeological objects. This is very .similar to the Wisconsin law. We 
trust that our brother archeologists in other states will cause similar laws 
to be enacted. 

Dr. Frederick Starr, the distin'guished American anthropologist, retired 
from active service with the University of Chicago, on June 15, after thirty- 
one years connection with that institution. He has been with the Uni- 
versity since its organization in 1892. He will hereafter devote himself to 
writing, to field investigations in Japan, China, Korea, Cambodia and Siam, 
and occasional lecturing. His retirement was marked by a series of re- 
markable testimonials from various organizations. 

Professor Starr will make his future home in Seattle, Washington. The 
Wisconsin Archeological Society, of which he has been a devoted member 
and helpful adviser for many years, joins with other friends in congratulating 
Professor Starr and in hoping that he may continue for many years to 
work in the field in which has won world-wide distinction. 

Dr. Henry M. Whelpley, of St. Louis, the well-known arrheologist, calls 
the attention of the Society to "a party who in traveling about the country, 
'buying Indian relics and paying for the same with worthless checks. Some 
of these are given on St. Louis and others on Cincinnati banks." He 
usually offers from twice to several times the value of the specimens. As 
an example, in Kansas City, he offered $1,200 for a $200 collection. He 
has operated at Albion, Michigan, Hannibal, Missouri, and in other places, 
introducing himself as a personal friend of Dr. Whelpey. He is described 
as a rather slightly built man, weighing about 175 pounds, eyes slantingly 
dipped at the nose. Sometimes he wears glasses. 

The National Research Council, Washington, D. C., has issued ;i pamphlet 
entitled "State Archeological Surveys, Suggestions in Methods and Technique. " 
This publication is prepared by the Committee on State Archeological Sur- 
veys of the Council, and of which Dr. Clark Wissler is chairman. Its price 
is 50 cents. Members of the Society should not fail to secure copies for 
their libraries before the supply is exhausted. 

On July 7th the State Historical Museum and Wisconsin Archeological 
Society conducted the annual archeological and historical excursion of Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin summer session students, 300 students participating. 
Mr. Brown was assisted by Miss Louise P. Kellogg, Mrs. J. H. Tylor and 
Prof. A. H. Sanford, all of whom gave talks at some of the different places 
visited. On July 14 a hike was conducted to the mound groups on the 
University campus and farms, all of which are now marked with tablets. 
On July 19 the annual "Folklore" meeting was held on the upper campus. 
Four hundred students were present. The speakers were Prof. J. C. El- 
som, Prof. H. B. Lathrop, Miss Louise P. Kellogg, Miss Estelle Bonnell, 
Miss Ruth Johnson and Mrs. Banker. On July 24 Miss Kellogg gave an 
outdoor talk on Muir knoll on "Wisconsin Indian Tribes." On July 26 
Prof. E. B. Gordon's class in pageantry presented an "Indian Mound Cere- 
monial" in connection with the unveiling of a tablet on one of the University 
mound groups. About one thousand students were present. Mr. Brown 
delivered the unveiling address. 



Archeological Notes 159 



A recent communication received by Secretary Brown from the Office of 
Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C., gives the number of Indians residing 
on reservations in the state of Wisconsin : 

Chippewa, Lac Courte Oreilles 1307 

Chippewa, Lac du Flambeau 810 

Chippewa, La Pointe (Bad River) 1114 

Chippewa, Red Cliff 516 

Potawatomi, Potawatomi 386 

Menomini, Menominee 1819 

Oneida, Oneida : 2657 

Stockbridge & Munsee, Shawano County 606 



9,215 

In addition to the foregoing there are 1,283 members of the Winnebago 
tribe under the jurisdiction of the Grand Rapids Agency. There are many 
scattered members of the several tribes resident in Wisconsin who are not 
attached to any reservation, many of whom have taken lands on the public 
domain either as Ind'ans or as citizens. 

The University of Wisconsin has recently published a leaflet, "Wisconsin 
Indian Tribes," for the use of Summer Session students. Members of the 
society can obtain copies by enclosing a two cent stamp to the State His- 
torical Museum, Madison. 



Vol. 2 



(rlnher 1823 

NEW SERIES 



No. 4 



STONE SPADES AND HOES 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE 

WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

MILWAUKEE 



(HLliscousm arcljrologiral *5onetp 



Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities. 



OFFICERS 

PRESIDENT 

Alanson Skinner 



Dr. E. J. W. Notz 
W. H. Vogel 
A. T. Newman 



VICE-PRESIDENTS 

Dr. S. A. Barrett 
Dr. F. C. Rogers 



Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand 
H. H. Smith 
C. G. Schoewe 



Dr. Geo. L. Collie 
A. P. Kannenberg 
Robert P. Ferry 



DIRECTORS 

H. E. Cole 
E. F. Richter 



Mrs. H. A. Main 
Mrs. H. E. Koerner 
Joseph Ringeisen, Jr. 



TREASURER 

Dr. William H. Brown 



SECRETARY 
Charles Edward Brown 



COMMITTEES 

STATE SURVEY- H. E. Cole, Dr. A. Gerend, Geo. R. Fox, Dr. W. G. 
McLachlan, Rev. F. S. Dayton, T. L. Miller, and Executive Board. 

MOUND PRESERVATION Dr. F. C. Rogers, Dr. John J. D. Mack, 
Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, W. C. English, Louise P. Kellogg, Mrs. 
Angie K. Main, Dr. M. E. Diemer, C. T. Olen, O. W. Malmgren, Mrs. 
F. R. Melcher, Rudolph Kuehne, W. A. Adams, R. S. Van Handel, 
and Vetal Winn. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. George L. Collie, Frank G. Logan, Mrs. 
Bessie E. Koerner, E. P. Hamilton, Mrs. H. A. Olson, Dr. Orin 
Thompson, Huron H. Smith, C. J. Koehn, Geo. Wright, D. A. 
Whelan and R. M. Dessereau. 

MEMBERSHIP Dr. H. L. Tilsner, William Haertel, G. R. Zlllisch, 
Rev. M. Staehling, Arthur Gerth, Dr. A. F. Heising, P. J. Zuegge, 
Rev. Christ. Hjermstadt, Mrs. Ellen Butterfield, Rev. J. H. Mc- 
Manus, R. Boettger and E. J. Gerrits. 

MAN MOUND PARK W. W. Oilman, Miss Emma Richmond and E. 
A. Oilman. 

AZTALAN MOUND PARK R. P. Ferry, C. E. Brown, Dr. S. A. Barrett, 
Mrs. H. A. Main, David Atwood and Dr. John J. D. Mack. 

PUBLICITY A. O. Barton, Mary E. Stewart and R. K. Coe. 



SESSIONS 

These are held in the Lecture Room In the Library-Museum Build- 
Ing, In Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 



MEMBERSHIP FEES 
Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $.50 Institutional Members, $1.50 



All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum. Madison. 
Wisconsin. Dr. W. H. Brown, Treasurer, 1240 Second St., Milwaukee. 



CONTENTS 



Vol. 2, No. 4, New Series 
ARTICLES 

Page 

Stone Spades and Hoes, C. E. Brown 165 

A Report on the Wisconsin Winnebago 173 

Louis Lotz 175 

An Indian Spirit Stone 176 

Copper Implements in Northern Wisconsin 178 

Archeological Notes 180 

ILLUSTRATIONS 
Quartzite Spade Frontispiece 

Plate Facing Page 

1. John Mike and His Spirit Stone ..176 




Quartzite 
I hi '1. son. St. Crolx County 



Utarnnstn Arrij?nlagtst 

Published Quarterly by the "Wisconsin Archeological Society 

Vol. 2 MADISON, WIS., October, 1923 No. 4 

New Series 



STONE SPADES AND HOES 
C. E. BROWN 

In the course of twenty years of research and exploration 
the Wisconsin Archeological Society has published descriptions 
of the character, frequency and distribution in the state of nu- 
merous classes of stone implements in use by the early Wisconsin 
Indians but of the flint and other stone spades and hoes but 
little information has been printed. In a state where mounds 
and other aboriginal earthworks are as numerous as they are in 
Wisconsin it is only natural to suppose that stone digging and 
agricultural implements would exist in large numbers and in 
various well-fashioned and interesting and well-established types. 
This is, however, not the case. Only about twenty specimens 
of stone digging implements of the spade form and a small num- 
ber of notched hoes are preserved in the numerous public and 
private collections in the state. At Aztalan, where an immense 
amount of digging must have been performed in heaping up 
the earth about the base of the stockade once surrounding this 
early Indian village and in constructing the mounds formerly 
within and without the enclosure, only three flint spades have 
been collected in the cultivation of the land and the early and 
recent excavations of this site. Such implements have not been 
found near the large mound groups existing in different parts 
of Wisconsin. Early French explorers state that some of the 
Indians of the Green Bay region were using shell hoes in their 
agriculture. In more recent times the natives have been re- 
ported as using pointed sticks and the shoulder blades of ani- 
mals for digging implements. It is thought that the old-time 
hoes of the Menomini may have had stone blades.* No doubt 
other tribes may have used them. Almost any rude stone spall 
with one sharp edge might be lashed to a wooden handle and 



*Sklnner, Material Culture of the Menomini. 157. 



166 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2, No. 4 

used as a spade or hoe. Stones which may have served such 
purposes have been picked up on village sites here and there 
in Wisconsin. 

Of the spades which have been found in Wisconsin, and which 
are to be described, eleven are similar in form to and made of the 
same material as the spades found so numerously in Illinois and 
adjoining Middle 'Mississippi Valley stales. These, or most of 
them, are made of the light brown or greyish flint which occurs 
in a group of aboriginal quarries near Mill Creek, Illinois. Here 
this Hint is found in both nodular and lenticular masses, and 
pits were dug to a depth of twenty-five feet to obtain these. 
These concretions were sought by the Indian quarrymen for the 
manufacture of spades and hoes, and also for knives and spear- 
points.^ Many unfinished and broken specimens have been 
found here. A few spades and hoes made of native materials 
have been found in Wisconsin. The fine, large quartzite spades, 
of which a few have been obtained in northwestern Wisconsin, 
have received no previous mention in archeological literature of 
the Middle West. I'lidoubt edly others will be found when other 
village sites and burial places are exposed and disturbed by the 
cultivation and clearing of land in this region. 

Warren K. Moon-head* elassiiies the flint spade types of the 
Middle Mississippi Valley as follows: 

a. Oval spades. 

b. With diameter increasing towards digging end. 

c. With flaring or convex or angular digging end. 

lie says of these interesting flint digging and agricultural im- 
plements: "Formerly, there was some question as to just what 
purpose these served, but we now know that their distribution 
was confined to the rich soils of the central Mississippi basin. 
They do not occur at all frequently in the South, neither are 
they found in the Great Plains proper, save perhaps occasionally 
in eastern Kansas and central Iowa. The polished edges of 
many of them plainly indicate that they were made use of by 
the more sedentary tribes to prepare the ground for the planting 
of corn, beans, squashes and such other seeds as the Indians 
possessed. Judging from the prodigious number of these im- 



*Handbook of Am. Indians. 555. 

*The Stone Age in North America, v. 1, ITS. 



Stone Spades arid Hoes 167 

plements in the hands of museums and private collectors, agri- 
- culture was carried on by the natives in no small measure. 

"The chipping of most of them is rather rough. It was not 
necessary for the ancient worker in flint to exert his skill on 
an implement designed for a rough, although a very useful, pur- 
pose, yet there are specimens not lacking in the museums to 
prove that the implement was blocked out after the ordinary 
fashion, and, by means of a secondary chipping, small flakes were 
detached and the surface made as smooth and even as that of 
a large spear-head." The polish which appears on the edges 
of many of these implements is due to their use as digging im- 
plements. Some of the beautifully chipped and smoothed and 
polished implements, he believes, are ceremonial in character. 
Especially fine collections of these spades are in the museum of 
the Missouri Historical society at St. Louis. He states that Mr. 
H. M. Braun of East St. Louis had one hundred and eighty- 
seven of these spades and more than a hundred of the (notched) 
hoes in his collection. Dr. H. M. Whelpley of St. Louis is re- 
ported to possess an even larger number of flint hoes and spades. 
The writer has seen one or two of these fine Illinois spades 
which were highly polished over their entire surfaces. The 
notched hoes were lashed by rawhide thongs or cord to wooden 
handles, the spades were either fastened to handles or used di- 
rectly in the hand. Some of the spades are fourteen or more 
inches in length. 

Wisconsin Flint Spades 

1. In the collection of Mr. H. M. Jay cox, at Whitewater, 
there is a flint spade which was found in 1887 on the site of 
once stockade-protected early Indian village at Aztalan, in 
Jefferson county. This specimen is somewhat elliptical in form, 
its broader or cutting edge being somewhat battered, very prob- 
ably in the course of its use as a digging implement. Its length 
is lli/o inches and its width at its middle 4% inches. In the 
collections of the Milwaukee Public Museum there are two 
flint spades obtained during its recent excavations at the same 
place. One of these is oval in form and less than 12 inches in 
length. All of these specimens are made of Illinois flint and 
are identical in form with the spades found in such numbers in 
the middle Mississippi valley. 



168 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2. Xo. 4 

2. A large specimen, also made of this material, was formerly 
in the A. J. Barry collection, at Montello. An outline drawing 
of this spade, made years ago by the writer, shows it to have 
been about 14 inches in length, 3% inches wide near its cutting 
edge, 4 inches at its middle, and 2% inches near its roundly- 
pointed extremity. It is thought to have been found in Mar- 
quette county. 

3. Another blade of this form was in the former Horace 
McElroy collection, at Janesville, and was obtained in Rock 
county. This spade was 10% inches long. Its width near its 
cutting edge was 2% inches, at its middle 3% inches, and 2 1 /o 
inches at the other extremity. The material was a pink and 
light reddish flint. Because of its character there is some doubt 
whether this specimen was ever actually employed for digging. 

4. Mr. J. P. Schumacher reported the presence of a spade 
made of brown flint in his collection at Green Bay. According 
to the drawing furnished by him, its length is 9% inches. At 
its cutting edge its width is 3% inches, nt its middle 3 1 /4 
inches and near its narrow extremity 2 inches. At its middle 
it is about one inch thick. 

5. In the S. D. Mitchell collection, at Green Lake, then- is a 
portion, probably above one-third or one-fourth, of a broken 
spade. At a distance of 2 inches from its broadly rounded, 
polished cutting edge this fragment is 4 : > j inches in width. 

6. A specimen in the State Historical museum (Hall collec- 
tion) differs in form from any of the foregoing in having both 
extremities broadly rounded so that its outline is oval or some- 
what rectangular. Its length is 9% inches and its width at the 
middle 4% inches. Near one extremity its width is 3% and 
near the other 4 inches at its thickest part, at its middle it is 
one inch thick. This spade is roughly chipped of the light 
brownish flint in use in the manufacture of many of the spades 
found in southern and central Illinois. One extremity shows a 
slight polish. It is said to have been found in Dane county, 
Wisconsin. It weighs one pound and thirteen ounces. A speci- 
men of similar form, found near Beloit, in Rock county, was 
nearly 8 inches long, and 3^ inches wide at its middle. 

7. A small spade in the same collection, also probably obtained 
in Dane county, is made of the same foreign material as the 
foregoing. Its outline is somewhat triangular, the cutting edge 



Stone Spades and Hoes 169 

is broadly rounded and the other extremity pointed. It is an 
unusually small specimen, its length being only 6~y 2 inches. Its 
thickness at its middle is % of an inch. At its cutting edge 
this spade measures 3% inches in width, at its middle 2% 
inches and within 2 inches of its pointed end 2 inches. Its cutting 
edge shows a slight polish and there is also a slightly polished 
area near its other extremity on one side of its surface, probably 
due to the former attachment of a wooden handle at that place. 
It weighs 12 ounces. 

8. A fine spade in the State Historical museum comes from 
an Indian burial place at Butte des Morts, in Winnebago county. 
It is of the pointed oval form and is made of flesh colored 
flint. Its weight is one pound and 12 ounces. It is finely 
chipped and has been smoothed over its entire surface. Its 
length is ll 1 /^ inches and its width at its middle is 4% inches. 
Within 2 inches of its rounded extremity its width is 3% inches, 
and at the same distance from its pointed end 2% inches. Its 
thickness at its middle is % of an inch. Mr. Frank Mueller, 
Princeton, has a triangular Illinois flint spade which is S l / 2 
inches long and S 1 ^ inches wide at the cutting edge. 

9. The only flint spade of the rare bell-shaped form known to 
have been found in Wisconsin was collected in 1910, at New- 
burg, Bock county. It was formerly in the Evansville collec- 
tion of Mr. David Van Wart. It was made of the same light 
brown or tan colored flint as the middle Mississippi Valley 
spades. Its cutting edge was highly polished over its entire 
breadth. At its middle this polished area was % of an inch 
broad. The length of this fine specimen was 8% inches. At 
the angles (corners) of its blade its width was 6*4 inches, at 
its middle 5% inches and across its squared head 2% inches. 

Quart zite Spades 

10. The largest quartzite spade known is somewhat elliptical 
in outline. Its length is 13V2 inches, equalling in size some of 
the largest of the flint spades of Illinois. Its width near its 
upper and narrower extremity is "Jo inches, near its middle ."> 
inches and near its cutting ed<re 4 inches. This spade is made 
of dark brown quartzite and is roughly chipped. Its thickness 
at its thickest part, near its middle, is 1 ' L . inches, and it weighs 

pounds. It was obtained from an old Indian village site 



170 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2, Xo. 4 

at Island Lake, in Rusk county. It is one of the archeological 
treasures of the State Historical museum. 

11. Another quartzite spade in the state collections is broader 
than the foregoing specimen, the cutting or spading edge is 
broadly rounded and the other extremity pointed. It is made 
of the same material as the foregoing and comes from Hudson, 
St. Croix county. Its length is 11 inches and its width at its 
middle 5% inches. At a distance of 2 inches from its rounded 
cutting edge its width is 4% inches. It is 1% inch thick near its 
middle and it weighs '2 pounds and 10 ounces. 

12. Another large quartzite spade was found in a field at 
Eagle Point, La Fayette township, Chippewa county. This 
specimen is more nearly oval in outline than either of the fore- 
going, its cutting edge being but little broader and somewhat 
rounder than the other extremity. Its length is 11% inches 
and its width at its middle (r;i inches. It is made of white 
quartzite and its weight is r>i/ t pounds. It is in the E. Reister 
collection at Chippewa Falls. 

13. A long narrow spade in this collection, from the same 
locality, is made of a dirty greyish-brown quartzite. It re- 
sembles the first quartzite spade described in its general out- 
line. One of its edges is somewhat irregular from near its 
middle to its cutting edge. Its length is 12 inches, near its 
narrowest extremity its width is 2 inches, at its middle 3% 
inches, and at its cutting edge 2% inches. 

14. In this collection, also from the same locality, there is a 
broken spade (about half of the implement) of the same general 
outline as the foregoing. Its length is 6% inches. Its width 
at its middle is S 1 ^ inches and near its rounded extremity 2 
inches. It is made of brown quartzite. 

15. Another quartzite spade from Eagle Point is of smaller 
size than any of the others, its length being only 6% inches. 
This specimen has a rounded cutting edge, the other extremity 
ending in a rounded point. Its width near its cutting edge is 
2% inches, near its middle 3 inches and near its pointed ex- 
tremity 1% inches. 

16. A small triangular spade (?) made of light brown 
quartzite, comes from South Madison, Dane county. Its length 
is only 5% inches and its width at its cutting edge 3% inches. 
Its thickness is % of an inch and its weight 7 ounces. It is a 



Stone Spades and Hoes 171 

fine specimen, all of its edges being thin and sharp. It is in 
the state museum. Mr. Frank H. Lyman, Kenosha, has in his 
collection a large oval spade made of brown chalcedony. This 
fine specimen, the only spade made of this material which the 
writer has seen, comes from Iowa. Its length is 10 inches and 
its greatest width 5 inches. At its middle it is one inch thick. 

Stone Spades 

17. Spades made of other material than flint or quartzite have 
been found in Wisconsin. Most of these are rudely fashioned 
from slabs of stone. One in the state museum is a broad, flat 
piece of limestone, the edges of which have been ground. This 
specimen is 7% inches long and % of an inch thick at its middle. 
It weighs one pound and 6 ounces. Both extremities are broadly 
rounded. Its width at its cutting edge is 4% inches, at its 
middle 4% inches and at its head 3 inches. It comes from a 
Winnebago Indian village site at Carcajou, on the northwest 
shore of Lake Koshkonong. 

Notched Hoes 

So far as known no notched hoe of the well-known middle 
Mississippi valley form has as yet been obtained in Wisconsin. 

1. A chipped limestone hoe of large size was found on the 
east shore of Lake Nagawicka, in Waukesha county, over 
twenty years ago and was in the A. S. Mitchell collection at 
Milwaukee. This specimen was of such large proportions that 
if used at all in agricultural labors it must have been with diffi- 
culty. Its length was 9^4 inches and its width across its broad 
blade, just below the notches 8 inches. The cutting edge was 
slightly curved and measured 8% inches in width. Its sides 
jvere concave. The note-lies, above the blade, were deep, extend- 
ing inward from the edge for depths of 1% and 1% inches. The 
distance across the implement between these was 4% inches. 
Its base, measuring nearly 6% inches in width, was deeply 
notched (1% inches). Only the edges of this hoe were flaked, 
the remainder of its stone surface being in its natural state. 
Mr. Mitchell reported the finding of a similar hoe at Lake Kosh- 
konong. 

Another large hoe is in the S. D. Mitchell collection at 
Green Lake, being found in the county of the same name. This. 



172 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2, No. 4 



specimen was made of a slab of granite. Its length was 
inches. Its broad semi-circular blade was 7% inches in width. 
Two shallow notches were on either side of the middle of this 
hoe. Between these notches its width was 6% inches. Midway 
between the notches and the upper extremity the width of the 
implement was 6% inches. Its thickness was from % to 1% 
inches. 

3. In the frontispiece of January, 1903, issue of The Wis- 
consin Archeologist (V. 2, Nos. 2-3) there is figured a large 
notched flint hoe which was found at Poygan, Winnebago 
county. This resembles a notched spearpoint in form. Its 
length is given as 7% inches and the extreme width of its blade 
as 3% inches. Its greatest thickness is one inch and its weight 
11 ounces. 

Other stone spades and hoes will very likely be found in 
Wisconsin. It is desirable that the Society should possess a 
record of these, and members are requested to notify its secre- 
tary of their occurrence. 



The Winnebago Tribe 



A REPORT ON THE WISCONSIN WINNEBAGO 

Dr. Paul Radin 's report on ' ' The Winnebago Tribe, ' ' for the 
appearance of which in print Wisconsin archeologists and his- 
torians have waited patiently since the year 1917, has just ap- 
peared in the 37th Annual Report of the American Bureau of 
Ethnology. The report, which contains but a part of the ma- 
terial collected by the author among this very interesting Wis- 
consin Indian tribe during his researches conducted among its 
members in Wisconsin and Nebraska, during the years 1908 to 
1913, is certain to be welcomed by numerous students and other 
residents of the state. Interesting chapters in this report are. 
devoted to the archeology, and history of the tribe, its material 
culture (habitations, clothing, hunting, fishing, agriculture, 
games and amusements, musical instruments, travel and trans- 
portation, etc.), general social customs, burial and funeral cus- 
toms, warfare, the council lodge, system of education, social 
organization specific clans, religion, dances and war-bundle 
feasts. 

The author assumes for reasons stated that this tribe entered 
the state from the south, probably from the southeast. That it 
developed its mound-building customs after it reached Wiscon- 
sin. "There can be no doubt," he says, "that the Winnebago 
and the closely related tribes like the Missouri, Oto and Iowa 
represented the second of the four westward migrations of the 
Siouan tribes." The Mandan, Hidatsa and Crow preceded 
them. The Omaha, Ponca, Osage, Kansa and Quapaw followed 
the second group, and the Dakota and Assiniboin were the fourth 
or last group. 

"When the Winnebago lived on Lake Michigan the tribe was 
so large that each clan had its own chief and a general chief 
presided over the whole tribe. After a while it became so hard 
to obtain food that a band of Winnebago went south. They 
never returned. These are now in the Southwest. Some of 
them are the Missouri and some the Iowa. Band after band 
kept moving away until only one was left the present Winne- 
bago. Four lodges once left the main tribe at Prairie du Chien 
or McGregor, and never returned. This happened after all the 
tribes had leagued together against the Winnebago. The reason 



174 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2, No, 4 

that these four lodges left the Winnebago was because they 
were afraid that Avar might break out again. Some people 
believe that the Oto were this lost branch, for they speak the 
same language with but few differences and use many old words 
that the Winnebago employed but have now given up." 

In his chapter on Winnebago archeology the author says in 
re the erection of mounds by the Winnebago that some of the 
members of the tribe were able "to give more or less reasonable 
explanations of the uses of most of the mounds, but a number 
of the older people claimed to have more or less distinct recol- 
lections of the erection of some of them. In obtaining notes on 
social organization the writer was told incidentally that it had 
been customary not very long ago to erect near each habitation 
of each clan an effigy of their clan animal. Subsequently, upon 
a more systematic inquiry, it was discovered that not only were 
such effigy mounds erected near clan habitations, but also on 
every plantation owned by each clan. In other words, these 
effigy mounds were to all intents and purposes, property marks. 
Similar effigies are found on the porcupine quillwork, on the 
war bundles, and on the woven bap's still used by the Winne- 
l)ap,'o in Wisconsin." 

The author gives a very considerable amount of very valuable 
and useful information about the Winnebago clans and their 
former customs. TFe learned of the existence of twelve of these 
the Ihunderbird, warrior (hawk), eagle, pigeon, bear, wolf, 
water spirit (panther), deer, elk, buffalo, fish and snake. He 
gives several diagrams showing the seating arrangement of 
these clans in the council lodge, also of the position of the prin- 
cipal .clans in a village. 

lie discusses at some length the relationship of individuals to 
the clan animal, the clan ties, clan functions, reciprocal relation- 
ship, possessions of the clan, and clan marks of identification. 
In another chapter he gives the origin myths of some of the 
clans, clan names and clan songs, and other information con- 
cerning them. 

Members of the Society are urged to obtain copies of this 
very useful report for their own libraries. 



Louis Lots 175 



LOUIS LOTZ 

Dr. Louis Lotz, the well-known Milwaukee pharmacist, and a 
charter member of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, died at 
his home at Milwaukee, on Sunday, November "18th, after a 
short illness. He was 80 years of age at the time of his death. 

He was born in Germany in 1843, receiving his education at 
the University of Munich. In 1869 he came to America and in 
1870 to Milwaukee, where he conducted a pharmacy until the 
month of October, when he closed out his business because of 
his poor health. 

Dr. Lotz took a keen interest in both archeological and ethno- 
logical investigations. He was in past years a frequent speaker 
at the Milwaukee meetings of the Society, illustrating his lec- 
tures with interesting specimens collected by himself among the 
Wisconsin Indians and in the Pueblo Indian villages in the 
Southwest. A miniature model of the village of Acoma and 
another of the famous Cliff Palace, now in the State Historical 
museum, were prepared by him. 

He also presented many of the most interesting specimens 
in the old drug store in the same institution. 

For the Milwaukee Germania newspaper he wrote many in- 
teresting articles, especially on his researches and experiences 
among the Pueblos and the archeological landmarks of New 
Mexico and Arizona. For many years he made carefully pre- 
pared and interesting exhibits in the show windows of his Chest- 
nut street pharmacy and these served to awaken an interest in 
natural history and anthropology in many young men and 
women of his home city. His pharmacy, because of its unique 
character, became widely known throughout the United States. 
Its owner himself prescribed and compounded all of his own 
prescriptions. He had for years a very large number of patients 
who sought his medical advice and assistance. No cigars or 
tobacco, candy, cameras, writing paper, magazines or other of 
the articles of this class, with which all modern drug stores are 
stocked, were ever dealt in at the famous Chestnut street 
pharmacy. 

The loss of Dr. Louis Lotz is mourned by many members of 
the state society and of other scientific, civic, historical and 
fraternal organizations of which he was a much beloved, active 
and generous member. 



176 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2, X<>. 4 



AN INDIAN SPIRIT STONE 

Dr. Alphonse Gerend has contributed several photographs of 
an animal shaped Indian spirit stone. This interesting specimen 
is the property of John Mike, a Winnebago, and is located on his 
land near the Black River, several miles east of Hatfield, and 
about twelve miles north of Black River Falls, in Jackson 
county. Mr. Mike, whose portrait appears with the stone, said 
of it: "My stone animal was kept by my great grandfathers. 
My grandfather kept it, beginning in 1809, until his death. I 
have the possession of the animal since my father died, in 1908, 
he being then 99 years old. This animal is helpful to the mem- 
bers of our families. We ask it for strength and power and 
for wild game. He replies by giving us these and power. He 
gives us these through his spirit." Tobacco offerings are made 
to this stone effigy. 

These spirit stone shrines are not confined to Indian sites in 
Wisconsin and adjoining states. Through the courtesy of Col. 
George E. Laidlaw, the well-known Canadian archeologist, the 
writer was recently given the opportunity to see a photograph 
of a large spirit rock which is, situated on the shore of Catfish 
Lake, in Algonquin Park, Ontario. It is a large angular rock, 
standing in the open, supported by several smaller rocks, and 
bears a striking resemblance to a turtle or other water monster. 
"Turtle Rock" is estimated to weigh about thirty tons. 

Algonquin Park is a large tract of wild land set aside by the 
Provincial government of Ontario for the preservation and prop- 
agation of native birds and animals. It is a very wild and 
rugged region of Laurentian formation, with many lakes, ponds 
and streams, hills, swamps and beaver meadows. 

Several years ago, while on a visit to the Lac Courte Oreilles 
Chippewa reservation, in northwestern Wisconsin, the writer 
noted at one entrance to the one-hundred foot wigwam at White 
Fish in which meetings of the local Mitawin, or Medicine 
Lodge, are occasionally held, a large curiously eroded boulder, 
partly buried in the soil. On entering the framework of the 
long, narrow lodge other similar moulders, also fixed in the soil, 
were encountered. Pairs of these, placed opposite each other, 




.form ./A-r and Hi* Spirit Xto-n<' 
Plate / 



An Indian Spirit Stone 177 

were found up the length, on either side of the center line of the 
structure. There were four such pairs separated from each 
other by even distances. 

This feature had not heretofore been noted by either the writer 
or investigators of local Indian ethnology. No Indians were 
present at the time from whom the exact significance of these 
manitou stones could be learned. 

Similar stones are occasionally seen in Indian wigwams or 
dwellings. These are personal or family manitous. Spherical 
or oval stones picked up in river beds or elsewhere are believed 
to be eggs which a thunderbird has dropped. They are pre- 
served and are supposed to prevent the house from being struck 
by lightning bolts. Descriptions of some interesting Wisconsin 
spirit stones have been printed in recent issues of The Wisconsin 
Archeologist (v. 1 no. 4 and v. 20 no. 3). 



178 Wisconsin Ar cheologisi V. 2, No. 4 



COPPER IMPLEMENTS IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN 

1'p to the past ten or lAvelve years but very few native copper 
implements had been found in the northern counties of the state. 
With the occupation and cultivation of northern lands the 
number of such finds has been steadily increasing. 

From Dr. A. R. Witt man, of Merrill, a member of the Wis- 
consin Archeolog'ical Society, the writer has received outlines and 
descriptions of the copper implements in his collection. Among 
these are stemmed and soeketted spear points, knives, a harpoon- 
point, awls, a needle, a fishhook, a spud, a crescent and beads. 
Of these implements twenty-five were obtained in Lincoln county 
and forty-five in Yilas and Oneida counties. Ten are from 
near lleafford Junction and others from Trout Lake and other 
localities. The Lincoln County specimens are from Indian sites 
and burial places on the east bank of the Wisconsin River 
within from three to six miles of Merrill. 

The largest copper knife in his collection is 1% inches long, 
the haft and the blade being of nearly equal length. The haft 
is broad and fiat. This knife comes from near Merrill. A 
smaller knife, from lleafford Junction, is about 5% inches long 
with the very unusual feature of a bifurcated (''fish-tail") haft. 
The smallest knife is only :J J ) 8 inches long. A flat harpoon, 7 
inches long, has a small barb on either side and within % of 
an inch of its point. Its width is J ;j$ of an inch. It resembles 
in its shape some bone harpoons which have been found in 
Wisconsin. 

A stout fishhook is '} inches long and is provided with an eye, 
an unusual feature. A single toothed or serrated tang spear 
point from near Merrill is 3% inches long. Soeketted spear 
points are from 1% to 5 inches long. Several are provided with 
rivet holes. The largest flat tang spear point is 6 and the 
smallest 2% inches long. 

An examination of the Society 's records shows that two copper 
implements, a spear point and a perforator, have been found in 
Douglas county ; three, a fishhook and knives in Burnett county, 
seven, a crescent, awl and four spear points in Polk county, 
a spear point in Ashland county ; a spud in Iron county ; twenty- 



Copper Implements in Northern Wisconsin 179 

six, including spear points, knives, awls, a harpoon point and 
bead in Lincoln county ; twenty-three, including spear points, 
knives, chisels, perforators and a spud in Oneida county; thirty- 
eight, including spear points and knives in Vilas county; five, 
two spear points, a knife, axe and crescent in Rusk county; 
two spear points in Price county; fifty, including three axes, 
seven awls and forty beads, in Chippewa county; an axe in 
Clark county; a perforator in Langlade county, and three, two 
spear points and a knife, in Barron county.* A total of 163 
copper implements found iii these fourteen northern counties. 
While this number is very small when compared to the large 
number of such implements found in especially the Lake 
Michigan shore counties in southern Wisconsin we may expect 
it to be greatly increased during the coming years when other 
northern lands are settled and cultivated. A cache or deposit 
of ten copper chisels found in recent years near Khinelander, 
in Oneida county, was one of the richest finds of copper imple- 
ments made in northern Wisconsin. 

Both the H. P. Hamilton and J. P. Schumacher collections con- 
tain considerable numbers of copper implements found in recent 
years in Oconto and Marinette counties, in northeastern Wiscon- 
sin. Some interesting copper artifacts have also been found 
north of the Wisconsin line in Michigan. 



*A large number of copper implements were said to have once been dis- 
turbed in railroad grading at Chetek. Nothing is known concerning them. 



180 Wisconsin Archcologist V. 2, No. 4 



ARCHEOLOGICAL NOTES 

MEETINGS 

A meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Society was held in the 
trustee room of the Milwaukee Public museum on Monday evening, 
October 15th. There were 50 members and visitors present. Presi- 
dent A. B. Skinner occupied the chair. 

Secretary Brown announced the election to membership of Helen C. 
Robertson, Whitefish Bay; Stone Hill Camp for Girls, Haywanl. Rev; 
Xiel K. Hansen. Whitewater; Herman Blatz, La Mornla Park, Cal.. ami 
Dr. F. W. Lehmann, Hartford. Mr. Anton Sohrweide, Jr., Watertmvn, 
was elected a life member. 

Mr. Skinner delivered an illustrated lecture on "The Mascouten of 
Milwaukee" and Mrs. Skinner an illustrated talk on "Archeological Ex- 
plorations in the Ozark Mountains," the latter being- an account of 
the recent discovery of interesting- human remains in the dry caves of 
that region. 

Mr. Anton Sohrweide, Jr., exhibited specimens collected from Indian 
sites along the Rock River, at Watertown, and Mr. C. G. Schoewe a bird 
stone found by himself on an Indian site on the Oconomoxvoc Iliver near 
North Lake, in U'aukesha county. 

A meeting of the Society was also held on November 19th, 35 mem- 
bers and visitors being present. Mr. C. I'.. \Vhitnall, secretary of 
the Milwaukee County Park Commission and Kara! Planning Board, 
delivered an address on "The Conservation of the Landmarks of Milwau- 
kee County." This was discussed by the members in attendance. A' 
his suggestion President Skinner appointed a special committee con- 
sisting of the Messrs. George A. West, Charles E. Brown, Huron H. 
Smith, Charles G. Schoewe and Dr. E. J. W. Xotz to cooperate with 
the Commission in its work. Mrs. Thendort- Koerner, Albeit M. Fuller 
and Dr. Frank Ehlman, Milwaukee, were elected members of the Society. 
The deaths of Dr. Louis Lotz, and of Mr. Otto J. Habhegger, a former 
president of the Society, were announced. 

The appointment of Mr. Town L. Miller, Fairwater, as a member of 
the Research Committee of the Society, was approved by the Execu- 
tive Board. 

oTll KK N< )TES 

An artistic granite monument has been erected by John Bell Chapter, 
D. A. R., of Madison, on the site of the Black Hawk War battlefield of 
Wisconsin Heights (1832). This was formally unveiled at a field meet- 
ing 'held on the spot on the afternoon of Labor Day, September 23, in 
which members of the Chapter and of the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society and State Historical Society joined. Many other visitors from 
the surrounding country were also present. 

Miss Louise P. Kellogg, of Madison, delivered the principal address 
of a very interesting program. The battlefield is located on County 
Highway J, the beautiful river road between the Sauk bridge and 
Mazomanie. 



Archcological Notes 181 



At Aztalan Mound Park important improvements have been made 
under the direction of Chairman Robert P. Ferry. A new fence has 
been erected along three sides of the property, shade trees have been 
planted and several sign boards are in place. At this date the holes in 
the mounds are being filled with earth. Other improvements will 
probably be made next year. Many persons visited the park during 
the summer and autumn. 

Mr. Frank H. Lyman, Kenosha, a member of the Wisconsin Arche- 
ological Society, has presented to Kenosha county his large and valuable 
archeological collection. The making of this collection, almost entirely 
from village sites, burial places and other Indian sites in the county, has 
occupied Mr. Lyman's spare time for many years. It will be installed 
in cases in the new county court house. 

At the annual meeting of the State Historical Society, held on 
October 18th, State Senator W. H. Titus informed the members of his 
intention of presenting to the State Historical museum his very valuable 
collection of archeological materials from the caves, cliff dwellings and 
other ruins of the Southwest. The Titus collection is the finest collec- 
tion of its character in the Northwest. It contains about l,t)00 pottery 
vessels and nearly 2,000 implements. A portion of the collection is 
now on exhibition in the public library at Fond du Lac, the senator's 
home city. 

On October 17th, Dr. Frederick C. Rogers, of Oconomowoc, a well- 
known member of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, delivered an 
illustrated lecture on "Wisconsin Indian Mounds," before a group of 
physicians from Milwaukee, Wauwatosa, Waukesha, Oconomowoc and 
Berlin, at the University Club, at Milwaukee. 

The Wisconsin Chapter of Friends of Our Native Landscape held its 
autumn meeting at the Natural Bridge, at Leland, Sauk county, on 
Saturday, November 3d. About one hundred members and friends from 
Madison, Baraboo and other places were present. Mr. T. W. English, 
Wyocena, delivered an interesting address on "Wisconsin Caves." 

The Apostle Islands Indian Pageant Corporation was organized at a 
meeting held at the Knight Hotel, Ashland, on Sunday, October 28th. 
This corporation is organized for the purpose of reviewing the early 
Indian traditions and history of the Lake Superior shore and Northern 
Wisconsin. It proposes to present an annual historical pageant at Red 
Cliff Bay, near the Apostle Islands. L. E. McKenzie, Bayfield, is the 
executive secretary of the corporation. 

The American Anthropological Association and American Folk-lore 
Society will hold their annual meeting at the Explorer's Club, New York, 
on December 27-29th. 

Mr. Charles F. Carr, of New London, a well-known former collector 
of Indian and natural history materials, died on November llth. His 
collections were presented to his home city and are on exhibition 
in the museum in the local public library. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Bulletin No. 37 of the Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa, Canada, 
is devoted to a monograph by Harlan I. Smith, entitled "An Album 
of Prehistoric Canadian Art." "It is designed to meet the needs of 
Canadian- industries who use designs and trade-marks In producing 
manufactured articles. In some cases the conditions brought about 
by the war have cut off the sole supply of industrial designs. The de- 



182 Wisconsin Archeologist V. 2, No. 4 



signs for many industries, such as the textile trades were almost 
wholly of foreign origin. Consequently Canada relied on foreigners 
for them and the war having exhausted the energies of many European 
designers, the supply has been inadequate." This very useful publica- 
tion is illustrated with 84 full page plates. Its price is 50 cents. 

The extension service of the College of Agriculture of the University 
of Wisconsin has issued an attractive and interesting publication, "The 
Wayside Park, Wisconsin's Call to the Great Out-of-Doors," Prof. 
Pranz A. Aust being its author. "The Wayside Park is Wisconsin's 
'open door.' It extends the community's hand of welcome to every 
passing stranger. Moreover, it may contribute immeasurably to the 
development of our rural life." 

"Observations on the Ethnology of the Sauk Indians" is the title of 
an interesting monograph by Alanson Skinner, which the Milwaukee 
Public Museum has recently issued. This contains a brief history of this 
former well-known Wisconsin Indian tribe, with chapters on its social 
and political organization, gens names, religion, ceremonies, dances and 
feasts. It is based on notes taken by the author while collecting: 
museum materials among these Indians in the months of May to July, 
1922. 

A recent bulletin of Lewis H. Morgan Chapter of the New York 
State Archeological Association, Rochester, New York, is entitled, "The 
Algonkian Occupation of New York." It consists of two interesting 
papers, the "General Archeological Criteria of Early Algonkian Culture," 
written by Alanson Skinner, and "Outline of the Algonkian Occupation 
of New York," by Arthur C. Parker, state archeologist. 

The July, 1923, issue of the Ohio Archeological and Historical Quar- 
terly contains an illustrated report by H. C. Shetrone on "Explorations 
of the Campbell Island Village Site and the Hine Mound and Villas 
Site." Both are near Hamilton, Ohio. Among the interesting speci- 
mens obtained during the excavation of the first site were several 
earthenware vessels, an ocean-shell container, bone scrapers, hoe-blades 
made of the shoulder blades of elk and deer, shell spoons and scrapers, 
perforated clam shell hoes, antler points and flakers, a stone disk 
pipe and a rectangular pipe, a stone ear ornament. The burials were 
flexed and extended burials, some being skeletons of children. A 
total of 20 graves and 17 storage pits were examined. 

The July-September, 1923, issue of the American Anthropologist con- 
tains, among other interesting papers, one on "Social Life of the Eskimo 
of St. Lawrence Island," by Riley D. Moore, and others on "American 
Feather Decorated Mats." by S. K. Lathrop, and "On a Peculiar T.VJM- 
of Whistle Found in Ancient American Indian Graves," by Bror 
Gu>staver.